Gene Sequencing : Genes And Genes

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“That which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet” (Shakespeare, 55), and the reason why is found in the rose’s genome. “Simply put, it [a genome] is the order in which the letters of the genetic alphabet are arranged along the chromosomal DNA strands. . . .” (Richards and Hawley, 279). Genomes are responsible for the structure, organization, and mechanics of organisms. Due to the precedence DNA has over life, scientists have, for decades, worked to uncover the mysteries found within our genomes. The process of organizing and identifying different genes is referred to as Genome (or Gene) Sequencing. Gene Sequencing involves two aspects: gene location and gene function. Genes that are frequently inherited together are…show more content…
The fragments created are unique to that section of DNA, and can be used to identify that specific piece of DNA. Scientists use this method to map both human and animal genomes. The information gathered from these maps is compiled in the international GenBank. Scientists also study gene function. This is more complicated than finding gene location due to the fact that genes influence each other through epistasis and polygenic inheritance. Scientist can use genes with known functions to make educated guesses about the function of unknown genes based on similar structures within the gene. Mutations, and the effects they have, also helps scientists to understand gene function. By locating which gene has been mutated and observing the result of that mutation, scientists can determine that gene’s function. The Human Genome Project (HGP) was founded in order to sequence and identify the entire human genome, and to develop databases of genetic and physical maps of different sequences. It later expanded to include other countries and became known as the International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium. Their efforts correlated with the research done by a biotechnology company called Celera Genomics, Inc. Based on both of their results, the human genome contains approximately 35,709 different genes (Richards and Hawley, 299, 303). Interestingly enough, the results showed that every
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