Mycoplasma: facultative or obligate anaerobes, lack cell walls (stain pink when Gram stained). Smallest free-living cells (0.2µm to 0.8µm in diameter). Have tough cytoplasmic membranes that contain lipids (called sterols) that give the membranes strength and rigidity. Named Mycoplasmas because of their filamentous forms - resemble the filaments of fungi. Mycoplasmas have a terminal structure used for attachment to eukaryotic cells, that give them a pear like shape - overall shape is pleomorphic. When growing on solid media, most species form a distinctive “fried egg” appearance
The purpose of this study is to identify four unknown organisms. The unknown organisms have been assigned randomly to six-research groups by Professor Hoffman. Each research group was provided two eukaryotes and two prokaryotes. The unknown organisms will fall into the following classifications: bacteria, algae, fungi, or protozoans. All living organisms are organized into one of three domains of life, Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya.
Macroscopically spore surfaces are usually smooth with downy to wooly texture. It has a light gray to olive brown on its surface and can become covered aerial hyphae that are short and gray.
Fungi are related to plants, they were not discovered until microscopes were invented. Fungi are many-celled organism and absorb food from living or dead organisms. Mushrooms grow around tree stumps, molds grow on old spoiled food and damp food. Mildew grows on leather, wood,
The observed protist had long, unbranched filaments with cells connecting to each other from end to end. This alga seemed to contain a central constriction in between each cell. The protist had a considerable length and appeared to bear a slight bend in its structure. The alga seemed to be around other protists of the same species in large
Chlamydomonas is a biflagellated green algae consisting of one circular cell only. Gametes in theirs structure are identical in chlamydomonas. The distinctive feature of Chlamydomonas is an extensive chloroplast, which has the pyrenoid, aiding in starching the formation. Not only that, but also it posses the capability of asexual and sexual reproduction. Single-celled algae such as Chlamydomonas produce daughter protoplasts during the mitosis stage. Each new cell has a cell wall, which forms around it, so the temporary colonies emerge. These colonies release zoospores, so-called daughter cells. During the sexual reproduction process, two vegetative cells play the roles of male and female gametes. In this case, a diploid zygote forms.
Kingdom Archaebacteria is a prokaryote (meaning it does not have a nucleus), unicellular (made up of one cell), reproduce asexually (binary fission), and are heterotrophs (meaning they don’t make their food themselves). One example of an Archaebacteria is a Crenarchaeota. Kingdom Eubacteria is prokaryotic, is unicellular ( has multiple cells), reproduces asexually (binary fission), and is a heterotroph. One example of an Eubacteria is an Euglena. Kingdom Protista is eukaryotic (has a nucleus), can be both heterotrophs(can make its own food) or autotrophs, and is mostly unicellular. It can reproduce mitosis, conjugation, or alternation of generations; and an example of this would be algae. Kingdom Fungi is eukaryotic, mostly multicellular, are heterotrophic, and can reproduce sexually (by budding/spores) or asexually (with two different mating types, +/-). One example of a Fungi would be Eomycota. The Plant kingdom is eukaryotic, are photoautotrophs (use their chlorophyll to make their own food), are multicellular, and reproduce sexually (alternation of generations). An example of the Plant kingdom would be an Orchid. Finally, kingdom Animalia is eukaryotic, heterotrophic, multicellular, and reproduce sexually (using sperm and egg). These are the six
As the growth of fungi were observed and identified according to the morphological characteristic, then microscopic observation is commonly used in identify the structure by observing the mycelia and spore produced. In order to do the microscopic observation, there are several way can be use in obtaining the characteristics of the fungi which is by Slide Culture Preparations and Cellotape Flag Preparations.
Each organism will be observed under the microscope to give a better understanding of the major structures of each organism as well as the movement associated with each eukaryote.
Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Be sure to address cell structure, replication (including DNA replication) and gene expression.
According to Microbiology Online (n.d.), fungi can be single-celled or complex multicellular organisms. Fungi that causes disease in human include skin diseases such as athletes foot, ringworms and thrush. Hyphae are a fungal structure which is the fine root-like thread that forms a network and absorbs nutrients and sporangium is the part that produces the spores and spreads them (Lee & Bishop, 2010). Yeast is a single cell seen mostly on the surface of bread and cereal. Fungi grow and multiply in the environment suitable for them such as temperature, pH, oxygen level and
The process of crossing over can be easily studied in Sordaria fimicola, an ascomycete fungus. Sordaria form a set of eight ascospores called an ascus. They are contained in a perithecium until they are mature and ready for release. Crossing over can be observed in the arrangement and color of these asci. If an ascus has four tan ascospores in a row and four black ascospores in a row (4:4 arrangement), then no crossing over had taken place. However, if the asci has black and tan ascospores in sets of two (2:2:2:2 arrangement) or two pairs of black ascospores and four tan ascospores in the middle (2:4:2 arrangement), then crossing over had taken place.