Genetic Analysis : Genomics And Genome Sequencing Branched Out From The Modern Genetics Field Of Biology

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Genomics and genome sequencing branched out from the modern genetics field of biology. In 1865, Gregor Mendel became the father of modern genetics. He was the first person to cross breed plants to see how physical traits were passed on from generation to generation. In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick discovered the double helix structure of DNA (Timeline). Frederick Sanger developed a method for rapidly decrypting DNA to determine the order of bases in a strand in 1977. In 1990, the Human Genome Project (HGP) was started. It was an endeavor that intended to develop the technology needed to map genomes, as well as to map human, mice, and fruit fly genomes. This project ended in 2003 when the human genome was completely mapped up to 99.9% accuracy (Timeline). Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) is the chemical compound that is responsible for carrying out the functions of an organism. It is comprised of the instructions to make a living being. It has four nucleotide bases: adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine. These bases are ordered in a specific way that gets decoded so the cell knows what protein to make (A Brief Guide to Genomics, 2015). Genes refer to a specific portion of DNA that codes for a certain set of proteins. Gene sequencing is the name for figuring out the order of nucleotide bases. This is what the HGP did with many different samples of DNA to produce a generic sequence of human DNA. Gene mapping is the process of determining what traits are found on certain

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