Genetic Engineering : Genetically Modified Organisms

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Genetics is the foundation that controls the diversity and natural selection of the world we live in now. Each organism ranging from the smallest bacteria to the largest of animals all have genes that make up their own personal identity. Without these genes designating these identities, there would never be such things as “organisms” but rather just one organism. Genetics is vital to the world because no matter what boundaries or challenges an organism is presented with, there will always be that one organism that is genetically modified with mutations to survive and reproduce. With the technology and research we are now presented, we now have the ability to create genetically modified organisms. A Genetically modified organism is defined…show more content…
This organism was first hypothesized and tested by the University of Guelph. What makes this pig different from any ordinary strain of Yorkshire pigs? The Enviropig was genetically altered by adding a gene from E. Coli and mice to the DNA to produce an enzyme in its saliva called Phytase. The Yorkshire pigs that do not contain the enzyme phytase cannot completely digest and absorb the phosphate and calcium contained in the seeds. This means that there is a higher phosphorous output and less nutritional value to the seeds. Phytase is an enzyme that breaks down any undesirable phytic acid (phytate) in grain and seed oils. When phytase breaks down these molecules, calcium and phosphorus is then released and can be digested by the organism. This phytase is produced and then secreted in the salivary glands. These salivary glands are the parotid, submaxillary, and sublingual glands. From these glands the phytase binds to the food molecules in the mouth. As it travels down the esophagus, the food enters the stomach and the enzyme is activated once stomach acid is released. Phytase is very resistant to proteases, which is one of the main acids produced in the stomach, but phytase is destroyed by the acids trypsin and chymotrypsin. This is detected by the lack of phytase located in the large intestine. The enzyme is still beneficial though because it breaks down the grains before being destroyed
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