Genetic Mutations And Sex Linked Crosses That Each Generation Of The Fruit Fly Can Make

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Drosophila melanogaster is an important model organism in biological research and has been prevalent for over one hundred years. Fruit flies are used by researchers because they having many qualities that make them favorable in research including their genetics, size, and reproductive capacity. The goal of the experiment is to test the different genetic mutations and sex linked crosses that each generation of the fruit fly can make. This lab sets up crosses of flies that reproduce in two-week span. The parents for the initial cross in the F1 generation are homozygous recessive white- eyed females and wild type red-eyed males (Shoup). After two weeks, the F1 generation phenotypic ratios change for the F2 offspring. We expect that the…show more content…
We use their genome and metabolic pathways to help make scientific gains in humans as over 61% of human genetic diseases are also found in fruit flies. There are four stages of life in Drosophila. The first stage is the egg, which develops based off room temperature. The second is the stage where larvae hatches from the eggs and grow until they reach the third instar when it preps for the pupa stage. The pupa stage lasts about four to six days and is important because it metamorphosis into an adult. Finally, the Drosophila develops into adults where females are larger than males and have pointed abdomens, unlike males who have rounded black tips. There are four different types of mutations: wild type, sepia, apterous, and vestigial. These are all altered wing structures. Wild types are simply normal winged fruit flies with red eyes. Apterous are ones with no wings. Sepia has black eye color. Mendelian genetics refers to two laws that Gregor Mendel developed regarding laws that state how traits are transferred from parent to offspring. Mendel worked with phenotypes, which are physical characteristics and genotypes, which has to do with genetic makeup from genes or DNA to form two alleles for each trait. Alleles can either be dominant or recessive. Mendel’s first law of segregation is when the two alleles segregate during gamete formation so each gamete contains one allele for each gene (Levina). This law focuses on
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