Genetics And The Science Of The Future

1693 Words7 Pages
Bridget Noonan
Miss Rodden
April 11, 2017

Genetics and the Science of the Future

Inside each and every cell in your body is a strange chemical called deoxyribonucleic acid, better known as DNA. DNA is a double-helix structure that is made up of billions of nucleotides. They are adenosine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine, abbreviated A, T, C, and G, respectively. “The information content resides in those chemical bases arranged within the interior, where A always pairs with T, and C always pairs with G” (Collins 6). These base pairs are lined up in a pattern as rungs on the DNA “ladder”. A gene is a section of base pairs in the strand of DNA. The smallest genes span about a few hundred base pairs, and the largest
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Some people have become susceptible to poisoning via fructose, a sugar commonly found in plants (Moalem 3). “One single letter change in a series of billions of letters and you’ve got bones that break with the slightest of pressure. Another small shift and you wouldn’t feel that broken bone at all” (Moalem 171). The examples given in that quote are exceedingly rare mutations. One example of a much more common mutation is a mutation in lactase, an enzyme responsible for the digestion of milk. Production of lactase is typically ceased at about age 4, but some carry a mutation that allows them to digest milk their entire lives (“What is Mutation?” Learn.Genetics). In fact, this mutation is so common here in America that most people find it strange when someone is lactose-intolerant. This mutation in the production of lactase is one commonly found in people of European descent, and everyone in my family carries this mutation.
Mutation is no longer an uncontrollable phenomenon. Scientists are now able to edit specific pieces of an organism’s genome. The edited organisms are known as genetically modified organisms, or GMOs. GMOs are created when scientists delete or alter a section of DNA or they insert a section of DNA that is either taken from another organism or made synthetically. “The process of creating GMOs is called genetic modification or
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