Genetics' Effect on Medicine in the 21st Century Essay

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Genetics' Effect on Medicine in the 21st Century Deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA, is present within every single cell in the human body and controls the production of different proteins. DNA can be thought of as the brain of every cell, it governs the operation of the body's cells and so determines whether the individual has good health or is ill. It is for this reason that the study of DNA generates such excitement in medical research, and offers such hope for the future identification and treatment of disease. Many would argue that the mapping of the human genome is one of the key scientific achievements; however, this knowledge is of no practical use because we aren't fully prepared to experiment…show more content…
The decoding of the human genome will allow pharmaceutical companies to develop new drugs that act on the mechanism of the disease and identify susceptible genes (to diseases, like the common cold) for early detection and prevention. Furthermore, this information will allow pharmaceutical companies to identify from a certain individuals' genetic make up if they are likely to react adversely to a particular drug. It will also allow the companies to identify people who would benefit from particular drug treatments. The last two areas are important in the field of pharmacogenetics, this is the tailoring of drug treatment to the genetic make-up of the patient while maximising the drug efficiency and minimizing the possible side-effects. Before any information on the human genome sequence was available, when individuals didn't respond well to prescribed drugs the drug was blamed. However, over time we have gathered more information and expanded our knowledge on the human genome and actually discovered that the adverse reaction was down to the individual and not the drug. This is because within all of us there are known to be polymorphisms. In order for us to understand this I must describe the science behind this idea. Genes are made of 4 nitrogenous bases these are adenine, guanine, thymine and cytosine. Adenine is complementary to thymine and guanine is complementary to
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