Genetics and Pharmacology

1978 Words8 Pages
Drug metabolism in humans is an essential topic to understand if one is to go into the pharmaceutical industry. When an individual ingests antibiotics their body is already prepared with the proper enzymes and molecular processes that allow for the breakdown and the uptake of these drugs. Xenobiotics encompass any substance that is foreign to the body; antibiotics fall into this category (Katzung, Masters, & Trevor, 2012). These are entities that the body does not produce naturally. Antibiotics are used for a variety of conditions, especially those that involve the infestation of bacteria in the human body. These bacteria could cause adverse reactions in humans that could result in illness, calling the need for antibiotics. However, after a drug in ingested, it is drug metabolism that takes over. Drug metabolism is set up in a way that requires the liver to function properly in order to activate or de-activate certain parts of an antibiotic. A large portion of all xenobiotics must pass through the liver in order for the drug to have any effect on the body. This is known as first-pass metabolism (Katzung, Masters, & Trevor, 2012). This same first pass metabolism concept can also occur in the gastrointestinal tract. Once a drug is administered, most commonly orally, the drug is transported from the intestines to the liver through the hepatic portal circulation in order to go directly to the liver in order to become metabolized (Katzung, Masters, & Trevor, 2012). From there
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