Geographic Information Systems (Gis)

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GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS (GIS)
AND TERRORIST ATTACKS OF OKLAHOMA CITY BOMBING AND THE WORLD TRADE CENTER

Submitted To
Mark Stallo
School of Graduate Studies
Of Tiffin University

In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the graduate course
Geographic Information Systems
ENF 622

In the School of Criminal Justice

Summer Quarter 2006

by

Oscar Young

Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
And Terrorist Attacks Of Oklahoma City Bombing And The World Trade Center

History of GIS

GIS is a way of organizing large amounts of geographic information. It is not a tool, a software, a hardware or a specific image; it is a concept--a way of understanding maps (http://cnx.org/content/m13693/latest).
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The attack, which occurred on April 19, 1995, destroyed the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, a U.S. office complex in downtown Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. This attack is considered to be the deadliest "domestic terrorist" attack in the history of the United States, and, until September 11, 2001, the deadliest attack of terrorism within U.S. borders, but not the worst against the U.S. (the worst act of terrorism against the U.S. before the Oklahoma City bombing was Pam Am Flight 103) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Oklahoma_City_bombing).

By being the first major American city to suffer a mass-casualty terrorist attack, Oklahoma City's response to the bombing was carefully scrutinized by security experts and law enforcement in the years following the bombing, and then again following the September 11, 2001 attacks (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Oklahoma_City_bombing).

The effect of the bombing on the city was immense--168 confirmed dead, including 19 children and one rescue worker and over 800 people injured. The bombing destroyed or damaged more than 300 buildings in the surrounding area (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Oklahoma_City_bombing).
In the weeks following the bombing, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) response team at the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building was provided with GIS data collection and analysis which included the generation of maps,
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