Prof. Jonathan Bramson holds a BSc in Biochemistry and a PhD in Experimental Medicine from McGill University. He has published 96 research manuscripts, 11 review articles, and 2 book chapters. He has also submitted 3 patent applications in the area of immunotherapy. His research is focused on the mechanisms by which the adaptive immune system recognizes and responds to tumours and a specific interest is the development of immunological strategies to fight cancer. He is currently a tenured professor at the department of pathology and molecular medicine at McMaster University, since 2009 director of the McMaster Immunology Research Centre (MIRC) and holder of the John Bienenstock Chair in Molecular Medicine as well as the Tier I Canada Research
ferocious chemistry is disable to differentiate between the cancerous cell or the healthy cell and
We studied the correlation between the micro-vascular density and type of cells “benign and malignant”: We noticed the higher vascularity of cases of cystitis, compared to the vascularity of malignant tumors, this could be explained by the higher vascularity of the active cells, edema, inflammatory infiltrate and vascular congestion during the inflammatory process.
Red and white blood cells are the two types of blood cells in the human body. Red blood cells transport oxygen around the body which is transferred through the bloodstream. It moves oxygen into the body and then removes it. They are absorbed through its haemoglobin.
A. Compare and contrast afferent and efferent lymphatic vessels. Describe in one way in which they are similar and one way they are different.
Give the title of the presentation, name of the presenter, and when and where you attended the presentation (2 points).
Langerhan’s cells are macrophages that activate immune response. The immune system is activated through the epidermis from the bone marrow. The langerhan’s cells branch out and form a network around the keratinocytes. They are found in abundance in the stratum spinosum, but found in other parts of the epidermis.
Allison hypothesized that “if the CTLA-4 molecular brake could be temporarily disabled, the immune system would be able to launch a more vigorous attack on cancer cells, resulting in the shrinkage of tumors. ” From this hypothesis, Allison and his colleagues set out to test the theory by delivering a synthetically developed antibody that obstructs CTLA-4 activity to mice. Wolchok did not identify a research question of hypothesis for the studies involving a second immune system-braking molecule known as PD-1, which is a molecule on the surface of many T cells that initiates self-destruction of a cell after coming in contact with cancer cells. Other than the hypothesize provided by James Allison, Wolchok does not provide other specific hypothesis or research questions that are intended to be
Inflamed tissues from Ulcerative Colitis (UC) patients show increased oxidative and nitrosative damage, leading to accumulation of mutations and dysplastic progression27,28. Infiltrating leukocytes from these patients have increased ROS production in basal conditions and in response to different ligands29. Since TLR4 mediates ROS production in leukocytes22, it is easy to speculate that immune cells drive pro-tumorigenic effects of TLR4. However, bone marrow-transfer experiments in our lab demonstrate that non-immune TLR4 participates in development of neoplasia8. Furthermore, we have shown that epithelial TLR4 activation predisposes to colitis and CAC6. To understand the role of epithelial TLR4 in neoplasia, our research has focused on the
The organs that make up the lymphatic and immune system are the tonsils, spleen, thymus gland, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels. White blood cells (leukocytes), red blood cells (erythrocytes), plasma, and platelets (thrombocytes) make up the blood. Lymphocytes are leukocytes (white blood cells) that help the body fight off diseases. Two types of lymphocytes are B cells and T cells. Lymphocytes recognize antigens, or foreign substances/matter, in the body. Lymphocytes are a classification of agranulocytes, or cells (-cytes) without (a-) granules (granul/o) in the cytoplasm. B cells are created from stem cells, which are located in the bone marrow. B cells respond to antigens by becoming plasma cells. These plasma cells then create antibodies. Memory B cells produce a stronger response with the next exposure to the antigen. B cells fight off infection and bacteria while T cells defend against viruses and cancer cells. A hormone created by the thymus gland called thymosin changes lymphocytes into T cells. The thymus gland is active when you are a child and slowly shrinks, as you get older. T cells bind to the antigens on the cells and directly attack them. T cells secrete lymphokines that increase T cell production and directly kill cells with antigens. There are three types of T cells: cytotoxic T cells, helper T cells, and memory T cells.
The primary function of skin is to form a physical and chemical barrier to the external environment, against injurious insults. Harmful stimuli such as micro-organisms, ultraviolet radiation, toxic agents or irritants evoke a complex response known as inflammation. Inflammation is an essential response in the protection against injurious insults. The five classical signs of acute inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and functional loss. These signs can be explained by the different phases that the inflammatory response generally follows dilation of capillaries to increase blood flow, vasopermeabilization, leukocyte recruitment elimination of pathogens or injurious stimuli and resolution of inflammation . At the molecular level,
There are many different abnormal cells that occur in breast cancer patients, but some of the most common are interleukins. In normal patients, IL-2 cells cause proliferation of the T cells as well as differentiation of cytostatic T-lymphocytes, but in breast cancer patients the abnormal cell interferes will cell mediated immunity response. IL-6 cells are fibroblasts, macrophages and lymphocytes, but in cancer patients they promote tumor growth by upregulating antiapoptotic and angiogenic proteins in the tumor cells. IL-8 cells are a key factor in the inflammatory response, but in breast cancer
such examples include IL1, IL6, IL10, PGE2, TGF-β, VGEF, MCSF, MIF & GM-CSF (Saskia J. A. M. Santegoets, 2016). VEGF exerts a variety of effects on vascular endothelial cells which promotes the formation and growth of new blood vessels. VEGF induces calcium transients, which causes stimulation of endothelial cells, which leads them to migrate and divide. Tumour cells are also capable of ‘shedding’ alarm proteins, such as MHC-1 complex, which as a result can have a dampening effect on NKG2D mediated activation of T cells/NK cells (Saskia J. A. M. Santegoets, 2016). As chemokines, matrix metalloproteases (MMP’s), DNA, RNA and exosomes are all highly soluble, they can not only operate within the tumour microenvironment (TME), but can enter the circulation, and subsequently effect distant mediators, such as bone marrow or lymph nodes, which can in turn suppress immune response.
Monoclonal mouse anti-human CD68 labels human monocytes and macrophages. CD68 molecule was present on patient intrafollicular tonsil macrophages, distinguished by the brown colour.
As the world continues to suffer from these devastating diseases, researchers continue to find alternative therapeutic ways of addressing cancer treatment. It is on this premise that various immunotherapeutic alternatives have emerged and currently garnering the greatest level of attention and already raising hope throughout the world in addressing the treatment of NSCLC. However, this can no longer be viewed as a discovery but a wave in the medicine world that began in the 20th century. Various researchers have found the importance of the role of immune systems in fighting the growth of tumor caused by cancer cells. A study by Huncharek (2000) stated that specific immune boosters are capable of eliminating preclinical cancers. In contrast, Jermal et al. (2011) found that immunotherapy is an effective approach for the treatment of tumors that have already turned into solid. Similarly, the researchers highlighted that immunotherapy can be an effective approach to the treatment of melanoma as well as renal cell cancers (Lasalvia-Prisco, 2008). However, Jemal et al. (2011) noted that immunotherapy cannot achieve much in cancer treatment due to limitation brought about by the emission of immunosuppressive cytokines and subsequent loss of antigen expressions. Recent development in research studies on the immunotherapy approach to cancer treatment continues to elicit mixed reactions among researchers of medicinal ecology (Jadad et al., 1996). However, recent development in