Chronologies are vitally important to the study of the archaeological record. Indeed Erin C. Dempsey, in her journal article which deals with the construction of valid chronologies, said that "Like time, chronology is of
Growing up, I visited my father's hometown in Mexico four times every year. During those visits, I learned how to feed different livestock, gather crops, and remove kernels from corn cobs. I take great pride in how my grandfather, Ermilio, produced enough crops to not only feed our family but to give in abundance to his community. It was there in the small town Corte Primero that my interest was first sparked in sustainable agriculture. I came to Texas A&M to pursue my interest by studying Bioenvironmental Sciences in the college of Agriculture and Life Sciences. My studies focus on agricultural techniques, regulations and practices that promote ecosystem health while increasing productivity. My experience in Mexico taught me much about different farming practices that was suitable for their climate and culture.
After I graduate, I want to work for the United States Geological Survey (USGS). I believe the thorough investigative work expected and performed at the USGS is vital to the integrity of the United States. Working for this incredible institute would allow me to uphold my life aspirations of environmental monitoring and protection to provide security from effects which threaten the natural landscape. With three semesters left before graduation, I am still unsure what field of study I am most passionate, ground water movement, subsurface imaging or natural hazard outlook, but the USGS is the place for me. This organization’s meticulous research responsibility warrants the best geologists and minds in the field. I will need further education, beyond undergraduate, to work for the USGS.
From an early age, I acquired a keen interest in geography. AN example of my love of the subject is when I visit Wales many times a year, every time becoming overwhelmed with the pure beauty of the landscape along with the physical and human processes that have interacted to make it the place it is presently. During my school years I studied geography, building up a foundation of knowledge. Along with this, my personal experiences with the natural world like hiking up dolgoch falls and visiting the centre of alternative technology (CAT) in Wales has given me a more insightful understanding of geography, engaging me with the desire and determination to learn more.
Multiple ways have been invented to test the age of fossils, from tephrochronology, which “uses chemistry and age of volcanic deposits to establish links between distant stratigraphic successions” to the use of deposited strata (Peppe and Deino). Tens of thousands of fossils have been excavated and more and more are dug up each year. In this debate on the origins of the earth, many people like to use fossils and the fossil record. “Fossils are precious gifts from the geologic past: signs and remains of ancient living things preserved in the Earth's crust” (Alden). For fossils to be formed they have to be taken out of a decomposing environment immediately, relatively
Throughout History and across cultures humans have always tried to make sense of scientific phenomena through stories. The stories attempt to explain scientifically unknown events such as natural disasters, astronomical or geological phenomena, or agricultural failures or successes. The stories serve to protect citizens, to explain the unexplainable, and to justify traditions. These folklore stories often stem from encounters with nature and are expressed through cultural traditions. Rocks, minerals, and fossils discovered by ancient peoples often became the fodder of folklore. Early fossil discoveries guided folklore and helped to define cultures’ belief systems as seen through art, literature, and traditions.
Because of the antiquity of the Pliocene environments, the only remaining witnesses of the behaviours are the bones and the stones. One of the main approaches to this type of issue is using the faunal remains. They are more abundant than the hominid fossils, and some indicator species are excellent proxies for paleoecological inferences. In addition, we can study their taphonomic signature, i.e. the processes that affect a bone between the death of the animal and its discovery as a fossil, and how these processes affect information in the fossil record (6). By looking at the different kinds of traces (grooves, cuts, abrasions, or any physical or chemical deformation) on a bone, a researcher can study its individual history. By identifying these traces on all animal fossils collected from a particular site, we can address the question of what the local environment was like. To evaluate taphonomy, the researcher looks at the surface of each bone with a handheld magnifying lens and records the type and intensity of the traces on each bone. Extant floral and geological data will also be exploited.
Mainstream scientist has ignored the astonishing evidence of fossil records that provide concrete background to humans existing for millions of years. In 1962, a team of archeologists led by Cynthia Irwin-William discovered ancient tool and skeleton remains at an archeological site called Hueyatalaco. Virginia Steen-McIntyre and her team of geologist were called to the site to determine how old these artifacts were. The team of geologists conclude that the artifacts were 250,000 years old. However, the team of archeologist argued that the date would be impossible due to the fact that humans did not exist within North America 250,000 years ago. Therefore, archeologist refused to publish the geologist’s finding. The power group of geologist repudiated Steen-McIntyre’s team because of the process of “knowledge filtration”.
An enormous amount of planning and research go into the excavation of an archaeological site. Before any kind of digging can take place, an initial survey of the area of interest must be completed. Once it has been confirmed that there are indeed fossil beds present, months of careful strategizing follow before ground is finally broken. After the real digging begins, the painstaking process of unearthing and meticulously cataloging artifacts that are found ensues. All of this must take place before the laborious process of analyzing and then dating these newfound artifacts can happen. From this point, archaeologists are able to begin the fascinating, and often times difficult journey to discover an artifact’s age.
Experts have found fractured crystals also known as ‘shocked quartz’ between the soil layer that was close to the time of the extinction of the dinosaurs. These crystals have arrangement in them which can only be made by great collisions or eruptions. (Pilkington, 2001)
The field of archaeology is incredibly important to understanding human culture and its development throughout prehistory. It is through the efforts of archaeologists that we have distinctions such as the stone
The discovery included a tremendous number of objects, from all periods of antiquity. Explicitly, such things as a rare Neolithic male figurine, Mycenaean shards, bone flutes, iron and bronze rings, miniature bronze statutes, fifty thousand terracotta figurines from the classical period and twenty-four thousand “knucklebones” (used for astrology, or prophecy). Generally, the ruins that survive today date from the extremely intense period of activity at the site during the sixth century B.C. Apparently due to the magnitude of the gloomy cave, intense lighting becomes
Fossils have been known for centuries, yet their utility in relative dating and geologic mapping was not fully appreciated until the early19th century. William Smith, an English civil engineer involved in
Journal Article Review on The Origin of Old-Earth Geology, and its Ramifications for Life in the 21st Century by Doctor Terry Mortenson.
Scientists have seen strata like those found in the Earth’s crust form both slowly through natural processes and rapidly through catastrophes like volcanoes and floods (Wile 194-198). Since both ways comply with the data, the formation of the geological column has no bearing on the timeline of earth’s creation. Moreover, evolution cannot explain Darwin’s most serious geological enigma, the absence of fossils of intermediate species. Fossils resembling evolutionary jumps like the alleged bird-dinosaur, Archeopteryx, occur rarely in the fossil record, and they often appear after the animals they supposedly evolved into (Wieland). Also lending support to creation, fossil graveyards contain fossils of animals from around the world all concentrated in one place, which indicates an enormous disaster like Noah’s flood (Wile 200). Various aspects of geology seem to point toward a relatively short timeline of earth’s history, and of the catastrophes that shaped