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Gestational Diabetes Mellitus : An Overview

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Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Isaac Anzaldua
Norma Beardwood (Roper), MBA, M. Ed., RDN, LD, LPC, CEDS
DIET 4252
September 21, 2015 Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Introduction
Diabetes Mellitus is a disease; which occurs through the insufficiency of insulin being produced or its actions are not being utilized. This occurrence leads to hyperglycemia; an issue in which the amount of glucose in the blood is relatively high. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus falls under the category of DM. GDM also consist of a form of insulin resistance throughout the pregnancy of the woman. If a woman is to be high-risk to have diabetes at the first prenatal visit; they should receive a test to be screened for diabetes. The majority of woman get diagnosed
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This occurs in 90% of all pregnancies with GDM, but the risk of these women obtaining GDM in the next pregnancy is relatively higher. GDM women after pregnancy can be diagnosed with T2DM; this occurs in 5-10% of these women. Forty to sixty percent of these same women in the next 5 to 10 years can develop diabetes (Mahan et al., 2012, p. 679).

Etiology Gestational Diabetes Mellitus is a form of diabetes; where glucose intolerance occurs during pregnancy. As the course of pregnancy unfolds; during the first 4-5 months glucose is taken to the fetus. In the remaining months of pregnancy; the requirements for insulin are dramatically increased, because of the high amount of placental hormones that exceed the glucose. As nutrients are supplied by the mother’s body; the placenta senses this action, and triggers placenta transport. Through the duration of the pregnancy increased glucose and placental transporters; are associated with diabetic women; who have experience increased growth of the fetus. Hormones such as insulin; play a significant role in the regulation of the placental transporters. This issue (insulin resistance) occurs when an increase of gestational hormones hinder the actions of insulin. The majority of pregnant women are evaluated around 24-28 weeks for the risk of Gestation Diabetes Mellitus; although that these women should be screened at the first visit (Escott-Stump, 2012, p. 552). Hyperglycemia is another result that occurs
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