Gestational Diabetes Mellitus ( Gdm ) Essay

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Katelyn Ghastin Topic Outline Dr. Hoppe October 25, 2016 Gestational Diabetes Mellitus INTRODUCTION Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is defined as a glucose intolerance that has been diagnosed during pregnancy.1 GDM affects anywhere between 1% to 14% of pregnancies and is on the rise due to the global obesity epidemic.1 Such a large range is due to the differences in screening technique and diagnostic criteria. Those who have a higher risk include women who are obese, have a previous history of GDM, have a family member with type 2 diabetes, are a member of a certain ethnic group, older than 25 years, and/or have polycystic ovarian syndrome. 2,3 There is a higher prevalence of this disease among Native-American, Asian, African-American, and Hispanic populations.2 PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND ETIOLOGY Pregnancy is a diabetogenic condition and there are many different factors within pregnancy that can yield insulin resistance which causes the pancreas to function less effectively due to the stress.2 The most frequent causes of insulin resistance include: alterations in growth hormone, cortisol secretion, estrogen and progesterone secretion, and a variety of other hormones that are secreted from the placenta.3 Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) also often have insufficient insulin secretion due to the impaired β-cell function and adaptation which is caused by the stress on the pancreas.2 The insufficient insulin production causes hyperglycemia because the glucose is
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