Also, an estimated 4 million cases and over 100,000 deaths occur each year due to this bacteria. Because the intestines are the site in which fluid is absorbed from food, unfortunately for people suffering from the bacteria, the intestines overdo their job and one suffers from diarrhea. Diarrhea is a homeostatic imbalance, in which stools are “watery” (Hoehn, 892).
Some of the most emerging and re-emerging agents of the waterborne diseases are; Cholera which is caused by the ingestion of water that is infected by Vibrio Cholerae. This is a painless form of diarrhea characterized by watery stool. Dysentery which is caused by Escherichia Coli. Typhoid that is caused by Salmonella typhi which is usually accompanied by fever is yet another disease. Gastroenteritis diseases caused by Giardia and Cryptosporodia and some species of hepatitis are also known to be caused by water (CDC, 2011). These disease causing agents find their way into the human body through infected water that people from the poorer communities in Uganda use and have no option of cleaner water.
We see also the work John Snow (physician) who discovered the polluted public water Well as a source of outbreak disease such as cholera in the poor areas in London. This was the starting point of epidemiology
People do not always die from starvation in a famine but they die from a weakened immune system. Researchers from the British Journal of Medicine find world food program who “argue that health issues cannot be separated from the food insecurity” which has been occurring since the 1990s (Zarocostas, 2010). For example, Barbara Demick outlines that chronic malnutrition causes an increase of susceptibility to diseases such as typhoid and tuberculosis. A notable statistic is the country’s “estimated tuberculosis incidence of 345/100,000 population is higher than in some countries with generalized HIV/AIDS epidemics” (Seung, 2013) . Also a result of malnutrition, the body is no longer able to metabolize antibiotics and malnutrition can cause strokes or heart attacks (Demick, 2009). The death rate then increases because these diseases are health issues which cannot be resolved with the lack of healthcare and
1. The Europeans poured have poured something into the water which sterilized the water and killed the toxins that become disruptive in the digestive system when they are consumed. They Europeans may have poured what are called oral rehydration salts into the well, which quickly works are combatting the cholera, and will prevent further outbreaks from occurring.
Dr. John Snow was known as an intelligent physician who had a background with anesthesia advancements. He believed that cholera was a waterborne disease and that it was contaminated by the sewage. Snow’s goal was to convince others about the issue and stop it from spreading. His theory about the intestinal disease, in which was published in 1849 in an article, was laughed at and many doctors believed that his idea was “wrong” and they continued to believe that it was airborne. He wanted to prove many wrong and begin to further research and experiment the disease.
faecalis has a low pathogenicity (scilo), it is a virulent, opportunistic pathogen to be reckoned with and is thought of as a super-bug. This is not only due to its ability to resist a variety of antibiotics, but also its ability to travel and employ biofilm formations. It can grow and adapt in many different environments. It can thrive in a wide range of temperatures and has disregard whether salt or oxygen are present, or whether the pH is basic or acidic. Its resilience on inanimate objects makes it a perfect candidate for transmission to occur within the hospital environment from hand to instrument, but it can also be spread via hand-to-hand contact and from food contamination (Public Health Agency of
Compounding this lack of care, Haitians also lack clean drinking water and proper sanitation systems. Less than half the population has access to clean drinking water, a rate that is only surpassed by civil war-torn African nations. Even worse, half the population of Haiti can be categorized as “food insecure,” and this malnutrition has created a generation where half of all Haitian children are undersized (IFRC, 2010). In addition, this poor sanitation and hygiene, coupled with inadequate nutrition, have contributed to exceptionally high levels of individuals with chronic, yet often at best ill-treated, conditions.
Haiti needed help since the cholera disease was new to the population. Nevertheless, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was informed of two United States HCW who became ill with cholera after providing medical services in Haiti (Schilling et al.,
Introduction. This model targets the entire rural Haitian population especially those with low immune system and the very young. This model will use preventative care as specialty of care. The setting will be an ambulatory health care center. This model has for goal to strengthen the knowledge of the population with good hygiene and habits to prevent Cholera.
Haiti, home to over ten million of people and many more all over the world, is one of the poorest nation in the Americas. In 2010 and 2011, Haiti was heavily affected by a large cholera outbreak that spread throughout the country (Page et al., 2015). Its low economy and its substantially high occurrences of adverse events and insecurity have made the country the recipient of many humanitarian aids and peace keeping missions for almost as long as the country have been independent (Page et al., 2015). It is not to forget that the cholera outbreak that started in the latter of the 2010 year and lingers until today is a complete mirror effect of Haiti’s substandard infrastructure, lack of sanitation and poor water quality have not only make this
Giardia lamblia: is a pear-shaped, flagellated protozoan, with two nuclei. The pathogen may exist as trophozoite (enable to feed, grow and cause disease) and as a dormant cyst, with thick, highly resistant walls composed of chitin-like polysaccharide that help the organism remain viable outside the host body for long periods. Due to this characteristic, is the pathogen able to pass
There are other common sources of cholera bacterium are surface or well water, seafood, raw fruits and vegetables, and grains. In water, Vibrio cholerae can survive for long periods of time, staying dormant. People in areas with poor sanitation, like crowded refugee camps, are at risk of cholera, due to the fact that water provided for said community could be a source of contamination of cholera bacteria. Seafood, when raw or undercooked, can be contaminated by cholera bacteria, if the seafood came from certain areas with contaminated waters. Since the 1970s, cholera outbreaks in the U.S. have been caused by smuggled seafood from cholera-infected areas, and from the Gulf of Mexico. Shellfish are especially contaminated, due to the fact that “they filter large amounts of water, concentrating the levels of cholera bacteria”. Raw fruits—especially unpeeled—and vegetables coming from an area with a source of cholera are another frequent source of the cholera bacteria. Innoculation of the fruits
What key activities and important facts tie each of the individual cases together? Some key facts that tie both cases together are that typhoid was spread by some form of contaminated food by a person (milk, food, water, seafood). In the case of Typhoid Mary, it was spread by her handling the food improperly. She was a carrier, and thus when she did not use good sanitary food preparation skills (like washing of hands), she passed the typhoid along to others. In the second case in Schenectady, New York, water did not seem to play a part in the spread of typhoid. So in both of these cases, the key fats that tie them together is the way