Gly1000 Exam 1 Study Guide Essay

3145 WordsFeb 17, 201513 Pages
Minerals Eight most abundant elements in the Earth’s Crust: Abundance % by weight – Most common Ionic Form Most Common Coordination Numbers Relative Ionic Size Oxygen (O) 46.6 % O-2 - - - 1.40 Silicon (Si) 27.7 % Si+4 Si (4) 0.26 Aluminum (Al) 8.1 % Al+3 Al (4, or 6) 0.39 Iron (Fe) 5.0 % Fe+2 Fe (6) 0.63 Calcium (Ca) 3.6 % Ca+2 Ca (8) 1.00 Sodium (Na) 2.8 % Na+1 Na (8) 0.99 Potassium (K) 2.6 % K+1 K (8, 12) 1.37 Magnesium (Mg) 2.1 % Mg+2 - - - 0.72 Distinction between crystalline and non-crystalline solids Crystalline – term refers to the ordered, symmetrical, arrangement or the atoms that make up the structure Minerals are naturally occurring solid chemical compounds with crystalline structure Exhibits cleavage Non-Crystalline…show more content…
Some rock’s in the Earth’s interior that are solid, are so hot that, if the pressure on these were released, or they are convected into a lower pressure zone, they could begin to melt Volatiles: The melting temperatures of minerals are reduced under high water pressure. Consequently “wet rocks” (rocks containing water) melt at lower temperatures that do dry rock containing identical mineral assemblages Factors influencing the viscosity of magmas Higher temperatures cause atoms to spread out and decrease in density, so magma at higher temperature is less viscous and will flow more easily Dissolved gases make the magma more fluid and buoyant. The higher the temperature the more the gases remain dissolved and the less viscous the magma The amount of silica in the magma. Silica has close jointing

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