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Epidemiology is the branch of medicine dealing with the incidence and prevalence of disease in large populations and with the detection of the source and cause of epidemics of infectious disease. The requirement for intimate contact to permit transmission makes gonorrhea a classic sexually transmitted infection. Sexual transmission of gonorrhea via vaginal, cervical, urethral, rectal, conjunctiva or pharyngeal contact accounts for the majority of cases, and also by non-sexual transmission from mother to child during birth. N. gonorrhoeae is a survivor in spite of being too fragile to be transmitted by food, water, air, or fomites; it continued to be a very common infection in most parts of the world in the preantibiotic era despite active efforts to control it. The introduction of antibiotics led to control of gonococcal infections in some populations, but despite the natural susceptibility of the N. gonorrhoea to low concentrations of a wide variety of antimicrobials, 75 years after the discovery of penicillin gonorrhoea remains a common infection in many parts of the world. Infection with N. gonorrhoeae has been associated with increased infectiousness of and susceptibility to the sexually transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (Vinod K.Sharma et al.,…show more content…
These factors include increased HIV viral load in the urethra, semen, cervical and vaginal fluids due to the high degree of inflammation, as well as increased HIV replication due to the influx of PMNs during gonococcal infections. Gonorrheal infections make the person more susceptible to HIV because it damages the columnar epithelial barriers and increases the infiltration of
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