Democracy in the United States became prominent in the early to mid 19th century. Andrew Jackson, the 7th president of the United States, was inaugurated in 1829 and was best known as the person who mainstreamed democracy in America. Because he came from a humble background, he was the “genuine common man.” (Foner, pg. 303) He claimed he recognized the needs of the people and spoke on behalf of the majority [farmers, laborers]. However, critics of Jackson and democracy called him “King Andrew I” because of his apparent abuse of presidential power [vetoing]. These critics believed he favored the majority so much that it violated the U.S. constitution, and they stated he was straying too far away from the plan originally set for the
In the conceptualization of the predominant 19th century political thought process, none- if any- were more influential than John Stuart Mill and Karl Marx. Both were philosophers, sociologists, economists and political thinkers, but each held unique views towards the ideal government, to freedom, and to the impact of the industrial revolution. Each discussed some of the ramifications of the industrial revolution, and the ways in which the government can be re-aligned for greater social prosperity. John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) advocated for Liberalism, a system in which liberty and equality would remain at the forefront of all political proposals, and representative interests. Mill celebrated individuality, and the ability to not conform to a higher power. In contrast to Mill, Karl Marx (1818-1883) was a revolutionary socialist who advocated for a complete social revolution throughout society, in an effort to counter the ill perceived effects of capitalism. Marx’s central tenet relied upon the fact that he sought to abolish private property, and monopolies, so as to enable all individuals to acquire an equitable means of living. Marx’s belief was that capitalism forces the economy into constantly being exploited, which in turn leads to recessions. Mill believed that all power should be allocated to the individual; whereas Marx believed that bestowing such power within a socialist regime would allow for the creation of a truly egalitarian society. This paper will analyze how
Social class systems in the nineteenth century were comprised of the upper class, the middle class, the working class, and the underclass. The different social classes can be “distinguished by inequalities in such areas as power, authority, wealth, working and living conditions, life-styles, life-span, education, religion, and culture” (Cody). The poor, also known as peasants, were usually mistreated and segregated from the wealthy, or those of higher class. During his time, Charles Dickens “seen as a champion of “the poor” by some of the poor themselves” (“What was”). It is said that one of his greatest achievements “was to bring the problem of poverty to the attention of his readers through introducing varieties of poor persons into almost all of his novels, and showing the “deserving” majority of the poor, bravely struggling against the forces arrayed against them” (“What was”). This is clearly evident in A Tale of Two Cities. During the nineteenth century Victorian era, social class systems were a common excuse for the division and mistreatment of many individuals, as evidenced in Dickens’ A Tale of Two Cities.
The United States during the 1800s became primarily divided into two sections classified as North and South. In the early years of the 19th century, the market revolution advanced technology and industrialization in America, but impacted the north drastically while the south continued to promote agricultural society. The debate over slavery then became the leading cause to the sectionalism formed in America because most Northerners were opposed to the idea of slavery while many southerners used slaves to maintain economic stability. Sectionalism in the United States was a fundamental cause of the Civil War because of disputes over territorial expansion and increases in physical violence.
Political machines were a very corrupt but necessary group during the 19th century into the early 20th. They were a local political party organization that made it possible to get a large number of voters out to get their candidate elected. Political machines were appealing to immigrants and other poor people living in the cities as much as they were important to the politician they got elected.
In the late 1800’s, America’s farmers faced deep financial insecurity with the fall of agricultural prices that kept them in poverty. Many farmers borrowed money from merchants and banks, and when it came time to repay their loans, they found themselves in the face of losing their land. Their financial troubles mainly attributed to the high freight rates that railroads charged the farmers in order to transport their crops, as well as high interest rates charged by loaners. This financial turmoil lead to the development of the Farmers’ Alliance, which advocated for lower interest rate loans by the Federal Government itself, so that way the farmers didn’t have to depend on independent banks and merchants for financial assistance. The Farmers’ Alliance eventually gained traction in politics and eventually formed itself into the People’s Party, or otherwise known as the Populist Party.
Many people, besides myself, have also contemplated this question, whether a utopian society could exist, and have put forth their own theories. Karl Marx and John Rawls are two thinkers that questioned what the theory of justice. Marx believed that history was always moving forward towards a utopian ending. Marx disliked injustice and declared this in his Communist Manifesto in 1846. His theory is centered on the idea that forms of society rise and fall as they develop and then became an obstacle for the development of human productive power and reality is governed by economic needs. This belief means that the present organization of society must be destroyed. To establish this new society, people must be organized and take up the struggle against the capitalists who take advantage of them. This struggle, according to Marx, will end in victory for the workers. However, Marx was unable to discover what laws and principles that would produce the just society in which he strived for.
There were so many reforms that happened during the 1830s and 1840s; many of which made a great impact, some didn’t make any impact, and some had an impact that took place a great deal later. Below are just some of the movements that were believed, created and fought for:
During the late 19th, early 20th century, the federal government began to grow because the American public wanted reform and they believed that the government was the best way to ensure this reform. This expanded power of the government was good as it helped immigrants, women, and people of color gain freedom and by protecting them from the harshness of the industrialized society.
During the 19th Century there were many reform movements that took place. Reform movements were movements that were organized to reform or change the certain way of things. Reform movements did not always work but the ones that did greatly changed the way our nation operates today. There were three major reform movements that have altered the nation; the abolitionist movement, the temperance movement and the women 's suffrage movement. Without these movements, and the great leaders involved, many common rights would not exist today.
Where democracy falls short is in the power of religious unity. Democracy promotes secular values which would have been extremely unsuccessful at the time while the very foundation of absolutism is based on a religious concept called the theory of The Divine Right of Kings. As explained by King James I of England in 1609, the theory of The Divine Right of Kings states that “for kings are not only God’s lieutenants upon Earth, and sit upon God’s throne, but even by God himself they are called gods.” The theory explains that the King was sent from God and is accountable to nobody but God. This connection between religion and policy allows for unanimous agreement for any course of action. In the 17th and 18th
The 19th century was the start of many innovative ideologies that changed history. Not only have these ideologies helped shape the structure of our lives, but they have also changed the way our people and historians view the world around us. Powerful advanced ideas about science, philosophy, religion, psychology and sociology were formed during this century. It can be disputed that no other time period in the world had so many ideas about the best ways integrate themselves in the ever-changing world and have such a positive impact. On the outskirt of the Enlightenment, 19th century activists and thinkers came up with new ways to approach society, economics, and political systems. Out of all the incredible ideas that came from the 19th century Socialism and Liberalism are two of the most important. They are ideas that can still be seen in parts of today’s society and have had dramatic effects on the shaping of our world.
Giuseppe Mazzini was instrumental in unifying the Italian nation as his ideals spread throughout Italy’s intellectual community. Although many of his attempts at rallying the common people to a revolution failed, he circulated and popularized the idea of a fully unified Italy for the first time since the fall of the Roman Empire. In his work “The Duties of Man,” Mazzini establishes that he is largely a romantic nationalist, since he draws heavily on history; however, he utilizes the power of certain liberal nationalist sentiments such as individuals’ rights in his own work.
Mill is extremely clear as to why the individual should be sovereign over his or her body and mindto counter the effects of a possible "tyranny of the majority." Mill states, "It (the majority) practices a social tyranny more formidable than many kinds of political oppression, since, though not usually upheld by such extreme penalties, it leaves fewer means of escape, penetrating much more deeply into the details of life, and enslaving the soul itself" (63).
Ever since the creation of man, society has been trying to achieve harmony between its citizens and establish a utopia in which everyone can live in peace and harmony. During the 1800s many citizens of capitalist countries believed that they were living in this utopia, however the working class begged to differ. It was not until the mid-1800s that someone finally stood up for these proletarians as this man believed that the exploitation of members of the working class was unfair. This person was called Karl Marx. This German philosopher inspired workers to rise up and challenge injustices and exploitations. In addition, his views on life and the social structure of his time revolutionized the way people think. It was not until Karl Marx