Grade 12 Data Management: Exam

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MDM4U – Grade 12 Data Management – Exam Unit 1: One Variable Analysis Types of Data Numerical Data Discrete: consists of whole numbers Ie. Number of trucks. Continuous: measured using real numbers Ie, Measuring temperature. Categorical Data: cannot be qualitatively measured Nominal: Data which any order presented makes sense Ie, Eye Colour, Hair Colour. Ordinal Data: better if sorted or ordered Ie, Date and Time, scalar options Collecting Data Primary: collected by yourself Secondary: collected by someone else Organizing Data Micro Data: information about an individual Aggregate Data: grouped data about a group; summarized data. Data collection Observational Data: group of people by characteristic, then observe…show more content…
Time and tree trunk diameter Common Cause An external factor causes two variables to change in the same way Ie. Correlation between ski sales, and video rentals Where it’s caused by colder weather Reverse Cause and Effect The dependent and independent variables are reversed in ascertaining which caused which. Ie. Correlation between coffee consumption and anxiety theorized that drinking coffee causes anxiety and it is found that anxious people drink coffee Accidental Relationships A correlation without any casual relationship between the variables Ie Increase in SUV sales causes increase in chipmunk population Presumed Relationship A correlation that does not seem to be accidental even though no cause-and-effect or common cause relationship is apparent Ie. A correlation between the person’s level of fitness and the number of action movies they watch. Critically Thinking about Data When analyzing data, we should ask: Source: How reliable/current is the source? Sample: Does the sample reflect the opinions in the population? Was the sampling technique free foam bias? Graph: Is the graph accurately portrayed? (Axis starting at zero) Correlation: Is the correlation between the variables strong enough to make inferences? Is the causation assumed just because there is a correlation? Are there extraneous variables impacting the results? Number

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