Grade Retention in the United States Education System

864 Words Jan 31st, 2018 3 Pages
Grade retention is also known as being held back or flunking, it is a custom that is done in many schools when a student is not performing well academically. Students are retained for many reasons, for example, Bowman (2005) mention that “the belief that an extra year of school will produce successful academic outcomes, failure to meet criteria for promotion” (p.42), the maturity level of the student and lastly for nonattendance (Bowman, 2005). But does grade retention promote academic performance? To the average person, one would believe that yes, grade retention does promote academic performance but one will see that this is actually quite the opposite. Granting, grade retention was created to be a solution for underperforming students but its effectiveness was deemed unsatisfactory and studies have shown that retaining students does not increase their academic performance (Bowman, 2005).
Grade retention increased due to the No Child Left Behind act in 2001, when former President Bill Clinton pressed to end social promotion of students who were failing academically (Peterson & Hughes, 2011). Clinton urged for schools to look into students standardized testing scores to show that students were meeting the national standards to pass to the next grade level and also warned schools that they would be held accountable for…