Grammar: Figures of Speech

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Allegory – The device of using character and/or story elements symbolically to represent an abstraction in addition to the literal meaning. In some allegories, for example, an author may intend the characters to personify an abstraction lie hope or freedom. The allegorical meaning usually deals with moral truth or a generalization about human existence.
Ex. “Animal Farm” George Orwell
Alliteration - The repetition of sounds, especially initial consonants in tow or more neighboring words (as in “she sells sea shells). Although the term is not used frequently in the multiple-choice section, you can look for alliteration in any essay passage. The repetition can reinforce meaning, unify ideas, supply a musical sound, and/or echo the sense
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This can give the effect of unpremeditated multiplicity, of an extemporaneous rather than a labored account. Asyndetic lists can be more emphatic than if a final conjunction were used.
Ex. On his return he received medals, honors, treasures, titles, fame.
They spent the day wondering, searching, thinking, understanding.
Atmosphere – The emotional mood created by the entirety of a literary work, established partly by the setting and partly by the author’s choice of objects that are described. Even such elements as description of the weather can contribute to the atmosphere. Frequently atmosphere forshadows events. Perhaps it can create a mood.
Chiasmus (kahy-az-muhs) - (From the Greek word for “criss-cross,” a designation baed on the Greek letter “chi,” written X). Chiasmus is a figure of speech in which two successive phrases or clauses are parallel in syntax, but reverse the order of the analogous words.
Ex. “The land was ours before we were the land’s” - Robert Frost (N, V, Pro: Pro, V, N)
“Pleasure’s a sin, and sometimes sin’s a pleasure” – Lord Byron
Sitting together at lunch, the kids talked incessantly; but they said nothing at all sitting in the dentist’s office.
Clause – A grammatical unit that contains both a subject and a verb. An independent, or main, clause expresses a complete thought and can sand alone as a sentence. A
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