Grammar-Translation Method, Audio-Lingual Method and Direct Method

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Three of the earliest teaching methods were the Grammar-Translation Method, the Direct Method, and the Audio-lingual Method. Discuss these three methods. Also, explain their shortcomings which led to more current approaches in the teaching of grammar to L2 speakers. 1. i) Grammar Translation Method (GTM): Grammar-translation method is the extension of the Classical method which began in Germany (Prussia) in the late 18th century. It was then become popular in the early 19th century. It is one of the earliest teaching methods and was considered as the first institutionalized and the oldest method of language teaching. This is because; GTM was an adopted language teaching method in various schools. In the book, “The Empirical Evidence…show more content…
By the time GTM was used in normal schools, a new form of method has been developed focusing on the speaking skills. It was then used widely in the private schools, particularly at the Berlitz schools. 2. i) Berlitz or Direct Method: Berlitz or Direct method was first introduced in the 19th century which attempt to build a methodology around observation of child language learning. This method has emphasized more on speaking and listening and uses little emphasize on grammar. This method was developed as a response to the Grammar-Translation method. It required immersing learners the same way L1 is learnt. L2 is used in teaching while grammar is taught inductively. There is a focus on speaking and listening, and only useful ‘everyday' language is taught. Major techniques such as the questioning technique were used to elicit student oral production as well as an importance on the ‘here and now’. Moreover, Direct method is the secondary role of grammar. This is because; grammar is deemphasized in speech as it is a direct effect of these techniques. The development of phonetic and phonology somehow has given Direct method an advantage during that time. However, the way teachers’ teach is more important rather than any scientific rationale about this method. ii) Shortcomings of Direct Method: There are many critics regarding this method. First of all, many abstract words cannot be interpreted directly in English
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