Essay Grave's Disease

1629 WordsMay 12, 20057 Pages
The disease was first noted in 1786 by Caleb Hillier Parry 1755- 1822, physician from General Hospital, Bath, England. His account was published posthumously in 1825. However Graves' disease is named after the Irish physician who described several cases in London Medical Journal in 1835. Graves' disease is also known as Parry's disease. In Europe, the disease is known as Basedow's disease. It is the most common cause of thyrotoxicosis (the morbid condition due to over activity of the thyroid gland). The disorder has three major manifestations: Hyperthyroidism with diffuse goiter Ophthalmopathy and Dermopathy The three manifestations need not appear together. Indeed one or two never appear, and moreover, the three may run…show more content…
However, the evidence that Graves' disease is autoimmune in origin is quite convincing. Hyperthyroidism and goiter are immunologically mediated. It results from the production of auto-antibodies directed against the TSH ( thyroid stimulating hormone)- receptors on the thyroid follicular cells or closely related cell membrane domains. Auto-antibodies are of two types: TSI ( thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins) or TSH- receptor antibodies ( TRAb) which mimic the action of TSH and thereby inducing the hypersecretion of thyroid hormones. TGI ( thyroid growth stimulating immunoglobulins) which initiates the growth of thyroid cells. The question is what initiates these autoimmune reactions? The answer is not clear but genetic, immune and environmental considerations are important. In genetically predisposed individuals, infection with viruses or bacteria may serve as a trigger. Certain strains of E. coli and Yersinia enterocolitica possess cell membrane TSH receptors. The production of antibodies to these pathogens might cross react with host TSH receptors on thyroid follicular cells to result in hyperthyroidism. Emotional stress is often dismissed as etiologically important. However, more than once have we seen a temporal relationship between the onset of hyperthyroidism and a major life event such as the death of a
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