Classical and operant conditioning on phobias and addictions Introduction Phobia in clinical psychology context is an irrational fear of something or situation. The person suffering from phobia will try their best to avoid their phobia. In the extreme case that the person suffering from the phobia cannot avoid it, they will attempt to endure through the situation with a lot of distress ADDIN EN.CITE Swanson1986158(Swanson, 1986)15815817Swanson, Guy E.Phobias and Related Symptoms: Some Social SourcesSociological ForumSociological Forum103-130111986Springer08848971http://www.jstor.org/stable/684555( HYPERLINK l "_ENREF_2" o "Swanson, 1986 #158" Swanson, 1986). Phobias can cause difficulties in a person performing their daily activities.
Known as a mental disorder a phobia is a persistent fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that leads to compelling desire to avoid it. Phobias tend to affect the way people live their lives, for example, their working and social environments, considering that they last for a very long time and are capable to cause intense psychological physical stress. It is considered today the most common mental and anxiety disorder in the United States (Matig Mavissakalian & David H. Barlow 1981 pp 2). There are many phobias such as: the fear of aging, fear of changing, fear of clowns, fear of getting fat, fear of being in closed spaces, etc.
Phobia is an acquired fear whenever we sense danger or when we are confronted with something new or unknown that seems potentially dangerous. It can be social anxiety disorder which characterized by excessive fear or anxiety about one or more social situations or specific phobia that developed when a person
FEAR: Agoraphobia the fear of going out or being in wide open spaces. The client may percieve an environment to be unsafe therefore instilling fear.
Of the many disorders presented in chapter 15, I find phobias the most interesting. Phobias are more than just a strong fear or dislike. A specific phobia is diagnosed when there is an uncontrollable, irrational, intense desire to avoid some object or situation. There are numerous types of phobias. A few common phobias are; agoraphobia, which is the avoidance of situations in which one will fear having a panic attack, especially a situation in which it is difficult to get help, and from which it difficult to escape. Social phobia, which refers to an intense fear of being watched and judged by others. It is visible as a fear of public appearances in which embarrassment or humiliation is possible, such as public speaking, eating, or performing.
There is no particular diagnostic laboratory test for phobias. It is typically based on the patient’s account of their own personal experiences. But researchers have decided that criteria for specific phobias include, excessive or irrational fear of a specific object or situation. If the exposure to the object or situation causes an
For purposes of this literature search, the PubMed database that is available through the Online Library . The concentration of the research was phobia amongst women in America and the relationship between phobia and anxious. For this reason, the following four
The term phobias a greek word for "fear" that most people have living their daily lives. The fear is caused by a "particular object, activity, or situation." The fear that we all experience is normal. Most affected people that are upset with items more than they are with other items can cause the person
The subject of phobia can still be considered as a mystery as no concrete answers to why phobia occurs. The psychologist are still making serious attempt and experiments to find the cause and finding an answer to the problems of
Specific phobia is the disproportionate fear or avoidance of a particular object or situation. Phobias are intense, unreasonable fears that interfere with functioning. Anxiety and fear are common to be a part of most of the other anxiety disorders like social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and agoraphobia. The development and maintenance of a specific phobia can be the result of fear conditioning. The behavioral model of specific phobia is based upon the assumption that thoughts and beliefs can influence our own behavior, emotions, and physiology. This model is built from Mowrer’s two-factor model of conditioning. The learned preparedness model suggests that fears of objects with evolutionary significance may be more sustained after condition. Although not all people with negative experiences will develop phobias.
Phobias are irrational fears, so to be afraid of a cobra is not a phobia, but to be afraid of all snakes is. Most people are afraid of helplessness in the face of danger. Many are afraid of needles, the dark, drowning, and heights and so on. Think of the things that frighten you most and you can be sure many of your readers will fear them as well.
However, there is a fear induced by the mind which is called Phobia. Phobia comes from the Greek word “Phobos” that means fear. This type of fear is known as irrational or inappropriate since it is caused by pure imagination. Most common phobias are the fear of evil powers, snakes, enclosed spaces, water, spiders and heights.
People are social animal. They live within a certain social, economic, and religious norms and behavior. Therefore, people who behave in unacceptable way, are called mental disorder, mental illness, or madness. Consequently, the definition of mental disorder is going to be changed according to place and period (Moran, 2009). In
Someone once told me a story about a woman who didn 't leave her house for 15 years because she was too afraid of socializing with people, and it was the only place she felt safe. This woman suffered from agoraphobia. Phobias are not something I have experience with, but
Thereby it is not completely clear, what the causes for phobia are. Phobia is often caused by something scary that happened earlier in somebody’s life, but not every one develop phobias after special experiences. An explanation for this could be that for some people certain parts of the brain and specific neural pathways are associated with phobias. It is