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Ground Echelon Research Paper

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The Ground Echelon consisted of three officers, one cadet, and 165 enlisted men who arrived on November 4, 1941 aboard the United States Army Transport ship (USAT) "Franklin S. Leisenring." U.S. bomb groups were classified into four types: Very Heavy (VH), Heavy (H), Medium (M) and Light (L). Very Heavy = B -29 Super Fortress, B 32 Dominator. Heavy = B -17 Flying Fortress, B - 24 Liberator. Medium = B-18 Bolo, B-25 Mitchell, B-26 Marauder. Light = A-20 Havoc, A-26 Invader (both types were also attack aircrafts),…show more content…
Through the Caribbean the Antilles chain formed convenient steppingstones from Southern U.S. States (Florida) to the Guianas. For a time the Atlantic, approximately 2,000 miles at the narrowest presented a formidable barrier to the movement of two and four engine aircrafts from continent to continent as they lacked the flying range. The air range of the bombers were less than 2,000 miles / 3,219 km thus incapable in crossing the Atlantic Ocean from any base located in mainland USA, consequently a “Southern Air Route” was established and the route from South Florida with distance, are as follows…show more content…
installation located approximately 1,400m /2,260 km from the coast of Brazil, and 1050m /1690 km from the coast of Africa. (The distance between Atkinson Field and Natal, Brazil is 1,932 miles / 3,108km; Recife, Brazil 2,020 miles / 3,250 km; Ascension Island 3,201 miles / 5150km). The Allied forces also had access to bases off the coast of West Africa that included: Roberts Field, Liberia; Sierra Leone; Gambia; with additional bases in Ghana; Nigeria (Kano and Maiduguri); Khartoum, Sudan which shares a border with Egypt and Libya. The Southern Air Route supported the following operations: Operation Lightfoot: The British offensive in North Africa - 2nd Battle of El Alamein, Egypt. Operation Torch: The first US Army offensive of the War led by General Patton in North Africa Operation Husky: The Allied Invasion of Sicily Operation Avalanche: The Allied Invasion of
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