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Groundwater Groundwater Pollution

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Groundwater Pollution with Chlorinated Ethenes Groundwater is water that is located underground between soil particles and in holes, or pores, in the bedrock ("Groundwater," 2011). Because earth has 80 times more groundwater than all the freshwater stored in lakes and streams combined ("Groundwater," 2011), its health has a large influence on the environment. Groundwater also has a large impact on humans; groundwater accounts for about 20% of water used in the US and almost half of water used in households, including drinking water ("Groundwater," 2011).
Chlorinated ethenes, also referred to as organochlorides, CVOCs, and chloroethenes, are common groundwater contaminants throughout the world (Zinder & Gossett, 1995; Dugat-Bony, et al., 2012; Rouzeau-Szynalski, Maillard, & Holliger, 2010; Ni et al., & Rijnaarts, 2014). They are often found in various environmental media near industrial facilities (Dobrzy´nska, Po´sniak, Szewczy´nska, & Buszewski, 2010). Chloroethenes tend to be persistent in the contaminated groundwater; they remain present indefinitely and are usually not degraded through natural means by any indigenous population (Zaan, et al., 2009; Tas, 2010).
Chloroethenes tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) are the most common type of groundwater pollutant in urban and industrial areas and pose a threat to human health (Lee & Lee, 2016). Both PCE and TCE concentrations are regulated by the 1986 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act due to
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