To continue, I then began to examine the endocrine system of the fetal pig. I began this dissection by finding the endocrine organs that are located in the area of throat. These organs were the thyroid and thymus. The thyroid’s responsibility is to produce amino acids that will help to regulate metabolism. The shape of the thyroid is oval like, and has a dark brown tint. The second endocrine organ found in the throat is the thymus. The thymus functions to provide immunity against diseases. It has a pink appearance, and is long in length. I was successful in finding three endocrine organs in the abdominal cavity. The first organ found was the adrenal gland. The function of this gland is to produce various hormones. This gland is identifiable
Dr. Kim Vonnahme has been a very important addition to the Animal Science Department at NDSU for the past eleven years. She has brought her tremendous knowledge of the reproductive tracts in animals to research and hands on projects for the students here at NDSU. Dr. Vonnahme received her Bachelor of Science Degree in Animal Science at Iowa State University in 2006. She continued to further her educational background by attending Oklahoma State University to obtain her Master’s Degree in Animal Science in 1998. Afterwards, she attended University of Wyoming to receive her PhD in Reproductive Physiology (Kim Vonnahme, 2014; Research Profile-Kim, 2014).
In the article “Does Shortness Need a Cure?” Ronald Bailey, the author, indicates Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of growth hormone use offers a treatment plan for those who are short in stature. Bailey also acknowledges bioethics as a seriously debated topic in the medical field. Bioethics deals with the studies of “moral issues in the fields of medical treatment and research” (Caplan). Bailey touches on the topic of bioethics as it deals with the use of growth hormones, specifically Human Growth Hormone (HGH) for people who are distinguished by their short stature.
Gonadotropins are a group of hormones that are secreted by the pituitary gland that starts the production of the gonads. The reason gonadotropins are used in fertility is because it has FSH and LH hormone that aids in producing eggs in order for a woman to ovulate. So in other words, if a women does not have enough hormone to start ovulation she will be given a rFSH for about 12 days to help the eggs mature and then a dose of gonadotropin to start the ovulation process.
If a cow, displaying the ‘double muscled’ characteristic was produced, this enables the breeder to inbreed this cow, with the original homozygous recessive bull to create a purely ‘Belgian Blue’ breed. Other technology has increased the concentration of these desirable traits. To ensure farmers are not jeopardising their stock population, artificial insemination is a new form of genetic engineering technology. Artificial insemination/embryo breeding is a process that involves inserting the semen sample of a bull and inserting it into the heifers uterus. Or taking eggs from a heifer and semen from a bull and inserting into the uterus of another heifer. This process can increase the concentration of selective breeding as the cows with less desirable traits are enable to breed as farmers insert reproductive cells of the biggest and best cattle into to the average cows and therefore increase production of offspring. Embryo breeding has become reasonably affordable and therefore farmers can increase productivity to meet increased meat
Greives, T. J., Long, K. L., Burns, C. M. B., & Demas, G. E. (2011). Response to Exogenous Kisspeptin Varies According to Sex and Reproductive Condition in Siberian Hamsters. (Phodopus sungorus). General and Comparative Endocrinology, 170, 172–179.
When breeding these cattle, high fertility Angus bulls will be used. Some of the bulls with be bred to straight Angus cows and heifers, while others will be bred to pure or mixed Hereford cows and heifers. Around 20 bulls will be present in this herd, noting that many head in this herd are of the younger age and not ready to breed. This number of high fertility bulls will ensure that most of the cows should be bred by the time breeding season is coming to an end. Around the time for breeding season to end, all female cattle will be brought in to be preg-checked. If not pregnant, that cow will be separated into a corral and will need to be artificially inseminated. Once all cows have gone through, the females that need to be artificially inseminated will wait until the next day or couple days to
The objective of this study was to study the correlation between embryo quality and follicle numbers in ewes by determining how the number of follicles in the ovaries of individual sheep vary and to see if there is a connection between a single superovulatory dose of equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) and the average number of follicles per day. The rationale given is that the reason for variability could be a number of things, such as: superovulation correlating to the number of small follicles (Gonzalez-Bulnes et al., 2000), the existence/lack of corpora lutea (Gonzalez-Bulnes et al., 2002), or the presence of a dominant follicle (Rubianes et al., 1995; Lopez-Sebastian et al., 1999; Gonzalez-Bulnes et al., 2002) at the beginning or duration
School will be used. Human growth hormone is a small protein which is made by the pituitary gland and is then sent into the bloodstream (Harvard Medical School). Human growth hormone is a prescription drug that is given through an injection (Harvard Medical School). Some people take human growth hormone as a precaution for a deficiency in the amount of growth hormone they have in their body. When people get these injections, they have “better protection from fractures, increased muscle mass, and improved energy” (Harvard Medical School). Consequently, those people take it for low growth hormone, but most athletes just take it to improve their muscle mass. Athletes doping on human growth hormone is a big problem which is why Major League Baseball has put a ban on it, but if they look at studies that have been done they would see that human growth hormone does not improve athlete’s performance. In California, a study was done on human growth hormone where people received an injection of the steroid for twenty days. Once, the study was done it was proved that when given a daily dose human growth hormone over that time a person gained an average of 4.6 pounds of lean muscle (Harvard Medical School). This shows that human growth hormone does have some impact on the body, but it does not make a person completely transform their body all at once. Moreover, even though they gained lean muscle, the study also proved that the hormone did not improve their athletic performance
Lately, the public has become aware of how the food industry treats livestock. Especially, the treatment of sows in farrowing crates, or gestation crates. A gestation crate is a container made of metal that keeps a sow confined during her pregnancy and parturition (Tonsor et al., 2009). Estienne and Harper (2014) reported the crates are mandated to be 0.61 meters by 2.13 meters and are hailed by producers for their storage advantages. They allow for more sows to be placed in one gestation barn, for easier rationing of feed, and for them to have a higher pregnancy rate (Estienne and Harper, 2014). However, the public is opposed to them, because they limit the sows’ ability to move (Tonsor et al., 2009). In all, Estienne and Harper (2014) showed in their experiment that sows’ that farrowed in crates had the highest offspring survival rate and a higher market weight. Yet, their research demonstrated the sows’ offspring was affected in the reproductive sense as the females reached puberty at a later date, had smaller ovaries, and lesser follicular development (Estienne and Harper, 2014).
Gonadotropin is individual group of protein hormones that considered being energetic to human reproduction. Gonadotropins are produced by anterior pituitary. Follicle – stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone are discussed to together as gonadotropins. They control the purpose of the gonads. In both sexes, Follicle – stimulating hormone (FSH) motivates gamete making, and luteinizing hormone (LH) promotes creating of gonadal hormones. They are the main types of gonadotropin. In Females, luteinizing hormones work with follicle stimulating hormone to produce an egg-containing ovarian follicle to mature. Luteinizing Hormone later separately activates ovulation and helps separation and statement of ovarian hormones. In males, LH arouses the
Each litter has up to six babies, helping the population increase dramatically in a short period of time. At least there are two genes involved
Change in live weight of a ewe is reflected in changes in body reserves. A negative change in live weight, i.e. a decrease in body weight, can occur postpartum, in the first stage of lactation. When a ewe starts her lactation period, there is a huge shift in different energy requirements (Nicol and Brookes, 2007). This shift is the onset of losing weight, since there is more energy required to maintain the lamb(s), than there is energy intake. Due to a change in body reserves, especially in adipose tissue mobilization, there is a change in live weight of the ewes (Keenan et al. 1969; Cowan et al. 1979; Burton et al. 1974). Change in live weight does induce change in body reserves, which is reflected in a change in the body condition score (Burgel et al. 2011). Ewes with low condition score at breeding have been reported to have higher chance of abortion in the embryonic phase of pregnancy (West et al., 1989). For body reserves, adipose tissue will be the first to deplete when the ewe is not in a position to maintain her live weight (Keenan et al. 1969; Burton et al. 1974). Changes in metabolism of ewes affect the body composition for adipose tissue, underfed animals will have lower fat reserves than animals fed at maintenance level or overfed animals (Chilliard et al. 2008). Body weight losses during pregnancy, regardless of the feed intake, is on average greater for heavier ewes than for lighter
It is common for the semen of 2-3 bulls to be used to ensure at least one quality sample to produce a pregnancy. In the instance that multiple donors are used, parentage is confirmed via DNA analysis. Most frequently, nonsurgical insemination is performed. This method calls for a trained and accommodating elephant as a large bore cannula is inserted into the lower urogenital tract. A 3m endoscope is inserted through the cannula and conducted to the hymen in first time mothers and the cervix or uterine horn of a cow that has calved. A small insemination cannula is used to deposit semen into the vagina, threaded through the hymen in nulliparous cows. In parous cows the semen may be deposited further into the uterus.14 Surgical insemination