Growth Hormone Essay

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Growth Hormone (GH)
The growth hormone of mammals plays an important role in the female reproduction controlling cell division, ovarian folliculogenesis, oogenesis and secretory activity (Schams et al. 1999; Hull and Harvey, 2002; Ola et al. 2008). The goat growth hormone gene is duplicated (Kioka et al. 1989), one of the copies codes for pituitary GH and the other one is expressed in the placenta. Thus it has implications both in pre-natal as well as postnatal growth (Supakorn, 2009). Two SNPs (A781G and A1575G) in exon 2 of GH gene were found to have significant effect on litter size in Boer and Matou goats (Zhang et al. 2011).
Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Receptor (GnRHR)
The GnRHR is a member of the rhodopsin-like G protein coupled
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1998). The PRLR gene is a member of the growth hormone/prolactin receptor gene family containing regions of identical sequences (Kelly et al. 1991). The prolactin and growth hormone receptors are homologous to receptors for members of the cytokine superfamily (Clevenger et al. 1998). Polymorphism in intron 1 and intron 2 of PRLR gene were detected in high prolificacy (Jining Grey) and low prolificacy (Boer, Wendeng dairy, Liaoning Cashmere and Beijing) goats (Di et al. 2011). However, genetic variation in intron 1 has no significant influence on litter size but intron 2 has significant effect on litter size in goat (Li et al. 2010). The mutations in exon 10 of PRLR gene was predicted to be associated with the reproductive effects of high fecundity Chinese Lezhi black goat (Wu et al. 2013).
Inhibin is a glycoprotein gonadal hormone, which can inhibit the synthesis and secretion of FSH (Robertson et al. 1985; Woodruff et al. 1996). It has 2 subunits,  and , linked by disulphide bonds. Two inhibins, sharing a common -subunit but different -subunits (A or B) have been identified (Mason et al. 1985). A missense mutation of INHα gene, has an important role in receptor binding and has been indicated in premature ovarian failure. The inhibin-βB (INHBB) gene with a mutation (A782G) in its exon 2 was reported to be associated with the prolificacy in Jining Grey goats
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