Growth and Development of Children Essay

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In terms of physical characteristics, the average height and weight for a two year old is thirty-four inches tall and twenty –eight pounds. Over time, their head growth will slow, from 3⁄4 inch (2 cm) in their second year alone to 3⁄4 to 1 1⁄4 inches (2–3 cm) over the next ten years. The child’s posture will change as well during the toddler years. These physical changes are due to improved muscle tone, which is cause for a more erect posture, thus giving the child a taller, and more lean appearance (“Physical Appearance,” 2013).
According to Erikson, children of this age tend to demonstrate a wide range of emotions; they tend to be dominating, uninhibited, and self-loving. Sometimes the child is very loving and wants to be close, and at
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For example, a toddler may see a car and imitate using a steering wheel, or imitate the sound of a car horn.
In spite of all of these facts, there are issues that affect the growth and development of toddlers. Three common issues are medical problems: nutrition, stimulation, and interaction. An example of a nutritional issue is malnutrition. Malnutrition is a condition that can cause anemia and increase susceptibility to infections (Beth Greenwood, 2014).
Iron deficiency anemia is quite common in children, as iron is needed to support growth. A lack of iron in the diet can cause delays in brain development, which may be irreversible. Common symptoms of iron deficiency anemia include irritability, palor, weakness, and cold hands and feet. Prevention of anemia is crucial for expectant mothers, as anemic women are at a higher risk for delivery complications such as hemorrhaging and having infants of low-birth weight. (Frantz, C. 2010).
According to the journal "American Family Physician," avoiding cow's milk until after age 1 can reduce the risk of anemia. This is likely due to the fact that cow's milk is low in sufficient iron and may be detrimental if used in place of breast milk or iron-fortified formulas. Toddlers also tend to drink a lot of cow's milk, often more than 24 ounces a day, an amount that injures the lining of the stomach causing chronic blood
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