Guidance (School) Counseling Essay

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Guidance (School) Counseling

Guidance counseling, also called school counseling, has evolved over the years into an important part of the education system. Counselors are now taking on new roles in schools as leaders so much so that the ways in which counseling is being implemented has become a much talked about topic in schools. The effectiveness of counseling in schools is looked at by the education system more frequently than it was in the past. Though all school counselors must follow a national model for counseling, the roles and functions of counselors at various levels in the school system are different, however, school counselors at all levels of education before college are generally effective despite implications.
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Before World War II, testing was used as a means of treating clients, however, American psychologist Carl Rogers later developed a theory that minimized advice-giving from the counselor and stressed conditions that made the client more in control of the counseling content (Krumbultz & Kolpin, 2003). The professional identity of the school counselor was furthered with the development of the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) in the 1950s, whose model is nationally recognized today (Krumbultz & Kolpin, 2003). In the 1970s there began to be an emphasis on the benefits that could be obtained with structured evaluations and on the accountability of services provided by school counselors, both of which are still emphasized today (Krumbultz & Kolpin, 2003). Training standards and requirements were developed in the 1980s where counselors were “trained to adapt the educational environment to the student needs” (Krumbultz & Kolpin, 2003, p. 976). In the 1990s school counseling was ignored as an important part of a student’s educational development with the development of the national educational standards and the school reform movement (Krumbultz & Kolpin, 2003). The ASCA attempted to compensate by developing national standards for school counseling programs that clearly defined the roles and responsibilities of counseling programs and showed
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