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EQ 7/2

EQ 7/2

PHT 112: HIV AIDS Determinants, Prevention and Management
Human behavior plays a key role in most of the disease condition in life.
a) Socialization; is a life long process through which individuals in a society develop an awareness of social norms and values; achieve destine of self.
b) Norms: Rules and expectations conduct which either prescribes a given type of behavior, or forbid it.
c) Values: Culturally defined standards held by human individuals or groups about what are desirable, proper, beautiful, and good or bad that save as broad guidelines for social life.
d) The individualistic interpretation of disease places emphasis on the individual as responsible for his or health status.
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These infections were all thought to have come from butchering and eating of monkey and ape meat.
2. The Contaminated Needle Theory

This is an extension of the Hunter Theory.
In the 1950s the use of disposable, plastic needles became common around the world as a cheap and sterile way to administer medicine. However, in Africa the enormous amount of needles needed to give inoculations and other medication would have been very costly.
It is likely that one syringe would have been used to give multiple people injections without sterilizing the needle. This would rapidly have transferred any viral particles from one person to another, creating huge potential for the virus to mutate and replicate in each new individual it entered, even if the SIV within the original person infected had not yet converted to HIV.
3. Oral Polio Theory

HIV-1 evolved from accidental vaccine contaminations and subsequent transmissions to
African villagers. In his book, The River, the journalist Edward Hooper suggested that
HIV could be traced to the testing of an oral polio vaccine called Chat, given to about a million people in the Belgian Congo , Rwanda and Burundi in the late 1950s.
 Hooper 's belief is that Chat was grown in kidney cells taken from local chimps infected with SIVcmz.
 The vaccine was analyzed and in April 2001 it was announced that no trace had been found of either HIV
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