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HIV and AIDS Worldwide

Decent Essays
Worldwide, HIV/AIDS poses an enormous challenge on the survival of mankind. HIV is the leading cause of mortality among women of reproductive age worldwide and is a major contributor to maternal, infant and child morbidity and mortality (1). 33.4 million People are estimated to be living with HIV worldwide; 15.7 million are women and 2 million are children younger than 15 years of age (1). With an adult prevalence of 5.2% in 2008, sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has been the most severely HIV stricken region, accounting for 71% of all new infections in adults and children, and about 90% of new infections among children worldwide (2). In 2009 the prevalence of HIV in Ethiopia was estimated at 2.3% with differentials: urban (7.7%), rural (0.9%), male (1.8%), and female (2.8%)(3). The number of people living with HIV/AIDS was 1,116,216 of which 84,189 were pregnant women, 72,945 were children under 15years and annual HIV positive births were 14,140(3). In the absence of any intervention of mother to child transmission of HIV(i.e. exclusive breast feeding and use of antiretroviral drugs), the risk of a baby acquiring the virus from an infected mother ranges from 15% to 25% in industrialized countries, and 25% to 35% in developing countries. HIV transmission rate and time of transmission is estimated to be 5% to 10% during pregnancy, 10% to 15% during delivery, and 5% to 20% during breast feeding (4-5). In 2009, 53% of HIV-infected pregnant women worldwide received antiretroviral (ARV)
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