HM Complexation At The Cell Wall Plasma Membrane Interface Case Study

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3 HM complexation at the cell wall-plasma membrane interface
The cell wall plasma membrane (CWPs) interface is believed as a key site for the HM stress signal perception. The CWPs involved in response to various abiotic stresses, have been extensively identified and characterised in different crop plants. Under various stress conditions, the main CWPs include phospholipases, the salt overly sensitive kinases, transcription factors, C-repeat binding factor, dehydration sensitive element binding proteins, mitogen activated proteins kinases and phosphatases, and abscisic acid responsive element binding factors (Ihsan et al., 2017; Dar et al., 2017). There are known CW proteins which forms covalent bonds and undergo glycosylation with HMs some
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Various plant cell organelles are involved in metal ions’ sequestration but the homeostatic role of vacuole in conferring HM stress tolerance is well established (Bashir et al., 2016). Therefore, the central vacuole seems to be a suitable storage bucket/reservoir for excessively accumulated metal pollutants. In fact, two vacuolar proton pumps, a vacuolar proton-ATPase (VATPase) and vacuolar proton pyrophosphates (VPPase),accelerate vacuolar uptake of most solutes (Yan et al., 2010), which is catalyzed by either channels or transporters (Yasir et al., 2011).Few well-characterized HM transporter proteins include zinc-regulated transporter (ZRT), iron-regulated transporter (IRT) like protein ZIP family, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, the P-type metal ATPases, the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP) family, multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP), ABC transporters of the mitochondria (ATM), cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family of proteins, copper transporter (COPT) family proteins, pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) transporters, yellow-stripe-like (YSL) transporter and Ca2+ cation antiporters (CAX)(Dimkpa et al., 2015; Taiz and Zeigher 2010). Evidence for plant vacuoles as the main reservoirs

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