HMGB1 And Alzheimer's Disease Analysis

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HMGB1 is a prototypic damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) protein highly secreted by activated macrophages and monocytes as a cytokine mediator of inflammation. This DNA-binding nuclear protein is released both passively during cell death and actively following cytokine stimulation. It is also implicated in both infectious and sterile inflammatory disorders [32-36] affecting the central nervous system (CNS) such as in Parkinson's disease (PD) [37], multiple sclerosis (MS) [38,39], ischemic stroke [40], traumatic brain injury (TBI) [41] and Alzheimer’s disease - AD [42-44]. HMGB1 activates cells by differential engagement of several membrane receptors including advanced glycation end products (RAGE), toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), and TLR4 which are primarily responsible for HMGB1 pro-inflammatory activity and BBB impairment [45,46]. Specific to the proposed work, several studies have clearly outlined the role of OS in the development of microvascular and cardiovascular complications of 2DM [47].
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