HPV Case Study

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HPV and its associated diseases affect men and women of all races and ethnicities. In the United States, Caucasian females have a lower incidence of cervical cancer and a higher incidence of vulvar cancer, while vaginal cancers associated with HPV occur more frequently in black females CITE JEMAL 2013 HPV linked oropharyngeal cancers are increasing in both sexes across all ethnicities with the exception of blacks, and hpv associated anal cancers have increased in both males and females of all races and ethnicities CITE JEMAL 2013 In the state of Florida, between 1981 and 2009, there was a higher incidence of cervical, vaginal, and penile cancer in the black population, a higher incidence of anal cancer in the Hispanic population, and a…show more content…
In their 2015 study Alves Ribeiro et al. found that women who began having sexual intercourse prior to age of 16 were more than four times as likely to have a HPV infection (OR 4.41; 95%CI:1.20-19.33), and nearly five times as likely for that infection to involve serotypes 16 and 18 (OR 4.68; 95% CI: 1.20-21.32). Moreover, women with a sexual debut prior to age 16 were twice as likely to have a diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)1 or greater (OR 2.2; 95% CI: 0.94-5.08 CITE 2. The same study also demonstrated a statistically significant association between CIN 1 and HPV infection, especially infection with HPV serotypes 16 and 18 (OR 2.76; 95% CI: 1.05-7.19) and (OR 3.53; 95% CI: 1.17-10.67) respectively (Alves Riberio et al., 2015). Over 90% of females in the United States are sexually active by age 24; correspondingly, the prevalence of high-risk HPV peaks at over 43% in the 20-24 age group (Vegunta, Kransdorf, & Mayer, 2014). By age 30, the prevalence of high-risk HPV decreases to 30.4%, and continues to decrease as age increases. It is thought that this age related decrease in prevalence can be attributed to a combination of factors, including, decreased exposure, resistance to reinfections, and HPV’s self-limiting nature (Alves Ribeiro et al., 2015; Vegunta et al., 2014). Cumulatively, the prevention and treatment of HPV and its associated diseases are responsible for a staggering approximately 8 billion in

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