Han Dynasty and Augustus Caesar’s Roman Empire

1007 Words4 Pages
In the forty years of Augustus Caesar’s reign—from 27 B.C. to A.D. 14—he created a new order that was the beginning of the Roman Empire. In 202 B.C., the year in which the Romans defeated the Carthaginians at the battle of Zama, Liu Pang won control of China and established the Han dynasty. The Roman Empire as well as its Eastern contemporary, the Han Dynasty, in China established strong central governments but experienced a decline caused by both internal and external influences; however, China leaders were more effective in using native conventions and values to maintain control over diverse people and regions than the emperors in Rome. The Han rulers used a system of choosing government officials on the basis of merit by introducing a primitive examination and recommendation system. By the first century B.C. the government employed more than 130,000 bureaucrats, or one for every 400 to 500 people in the empire. Although the examinations were theoretically open to all Chinese except merchants, the bureaucrats were drawn largely from the property-owner class, because affluence was needed to obtain the education to pass the examination. Consequently, the division of Chinese society transformed into a separation between landowner-bureaucrats and peasants. This system for officials influenced Chinese civilization for 2000 years. Students were expected to learn the teachings of Confucius, as well as Chinese history and law. By creating a group of well-trained
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