I am writing to you today regarding the recent outbreaks of Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) and the importance of hand washing. As you might know San Diego and Santa Cruz Counties are now experiencing outbreak epidemics, and our own county of Los Angeles declared a week ago, its own HAV outbreak.
Leigh Carlos, RN, MSN, FNP was very concerned about her employees and the risk of Bloodborne Pathogens and Hepatitis B. She took this very seriously and again did extensive research on what is required for their company to keep everyone safe. Often times, when a mentally retarded person loses control, they can transfer a disease through biting and scratching. Though they provided care for mild to moderated mentally retarded patients, she did not feel that their employees were at a high risk. Through reviewing the guidelines, she felt that if the patients were tested prior to being admitted, and then given the Hep B vaccine, they were in line with what OSHA required (Lester & Parnell, 2006, Case C.)
It’s all something that they’ve heard about, but do they really know as much about the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) as they think? HBV is a virus that attacks the liver, which can cause lifelong infections and other serious diseases (CDC, 2014). HBV is spread in multiple ways and is more life threatening than people realize. Explaining HBV requires much understanding about the virus, so to start out, pathophysiology will be the first topic, then into clinical manifestations, medical management, nursing interventions, and to finish off with a conclusion of the disease. Surprisingly enough, there isn’t enough awareness about this virus as would be expected. It’s a very serious and potentially deadly disease that goes unspoken of.
A deficiency in adherence to basic infection control guidelines that prohibit the reuse of needles, syringes, and IV tubing is evidenced by the incidence of outbreaks of healthcare-associated infections (HIAs) that still continue to occur. Most of these deficiencies occur outside of hospital settings. Since 1999, the CDC has reported over 30 outbreaks of viral hepatitis and other HIAs which have required notification of 125,000 Americans of their possible exposure to infectious disease. Of that 125,000 people, 448 people actually became infected with HBV or HCV. In 2001, a private physician’s office in New York was responsible for placing 2,192 patients at risk with unsafe injections involving reused syringes and medication vials and resulted in 19 cases of HCV infections. In Oklahoma, an outpatient pain clinic infected 31 patients with Hepatitis B and 71 with Hepatitis C in 2002 which required notification of 908 patients of their potential exposure. In this particular Oklahoma outbreak, a Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA) was reported to have routinely prepared a needle and syringe for
Hepatitis C is definitely not a public health crisis that needs emergency intervention in terms of the policy makers being pressured to make a decision urgently. However, thousands of citizens of the United States die on a yearly basis from this contagious disease (CDC, 2014). This makes it a serious public health issue. Hepatitis C is basically a liver disease that is contagious in nature and could be fatal if left untreated. According to the CDC website over 3 million Americans are infected with the disease (HCV), and “approximately 75%–85% of people who become infected with Hepatitis C virus develop chronic infection”. Hepatitis C is most commonly transmitted in the United States through IV drug use (CDC, 2014). Other modes of transmission includes blood transfusion or coming in contact with someone’s blood, accidental needlestick injuries among health care workers (e.g., nurses and phlebotomists), sexual contact (rare) and infants born to mothers who have the disease. These above medical and demographic facts make HCV a serious threat on public health.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2016) define acute hepatitis C as an infection of the liver that can become chronic when the hepatitis C virus has been in the human body for an extended period of time, leading to complications of the liver such as cirrhosis or cancer. According to the CDC (2016), there are between 2.7 to 3.9 million people in the United States population living with chronic hepatitis C. Those that were born between the years of 1945-1965, aka the “baby boomers”, run the highest prevalence of having the hepatitis C virus (CDC, 2012). This is relevant to the adult/elderly population considering that hepatitis C virus is most prevalent in the prison population, especially in those beyond 30 years of age (CDC, 2016). For every three prisoners, one of them is infected with the hepatitis C virus (CDC, 2016). There are many barriers the come in between a prisoner and their right to medical treatment. This is where the ethical principle of justice comes into play. This ethical principle states that all individuals have an equal right to the distribution of resources regardless of who they are or what they’ve contributed (ANA, n.d). Spaulding et al., (2013) agree in that “correctional systems have a constitutional obligation to provide adequate health care to inmates, including HCV management” (page number). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the controversial issue of diagnosing and treating prisoners affected by chronic hepatitis C.
Considered at their worst as the “pediatric Tuskegee”, others maintain that the ends, which benefitted both the subjects and society justified the means. Critics of the Willowbrook Hepatitis studies often cite the lack of informed consent and failing to protect the vulnerable as the two main areas of ethical concern. Although unethical these studies conducted by Dr. Krugman have helped develop preventative measures to protect society from Hepatitis B. The benefits of these studies provide a just cause for the implementation of like studies. However, this study retrospectively requires ethical improvements. These highly controversial studies have aided society, but in key areas failed to get informed consent, as well as protect the vulnerable.
Based on facts that came from barfblog.com a situation occurred in California at the chipotle fast food restaurant during the week of Aug. 18, 2015. On a count 98 people were people sickened with the norovirus. 80 were restaurant costumers the other 18 were restaurant employees. It was then all of the remaining food products was thrown out with the follow up of the EHD. As a result 7 out of 18 employees were affected by the norovirus and were excluded from work until they could test negative for the norovirus.
In New York City the Willowbrook State School (1947-1987) was supported for mentally disabled children by the state. The school had too many children with 2,000 or more students more than the school was even suppose to have. Families would give up the children to this lifestyle of poor and unsanitary conditions. Hepatitis A specifically and other hepatitis diseases were very common within this inhumane school. This disease inside the institution of disabled kids brought up outrageous amounts of controversy because of experiments on the children to try and diagnose their infection. Children with parents consent were the only allowed to be inside the specific study. Although many parents would giver the permission for the kids to be infected with the disease just so that they could be enlisted in the institution that didn’t need any
Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis is most commonly caused by viruses, and can cause your liver to become inflamed, swollen and tender. The symptoms of Hepatitis start out like the flu with coughing, fever, aches, and vomiting. However, the disease gradually worsens with symptoms of extreme weakness and excruciating abdominal pain. Never the less, Hepatitis can also be caused by alcohol and some other toxins and infections. There are many forms of Hepatitis; the most commonly seen forms are Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis c. Furthermore, Worldwide, 500 million people are estimated to be infected with Hepatitis B or C. These viruses kill 1.5 million people a year; 1 in every 3 people has been exposed to either or both viruses and most infected people do not know about it due to dormant symptoms.
Solution/intervention of the case: John has the ability to use an online database to be able to supply and manage results of food safety inspections as well as other electronic inspections from other food establishments from 2005. With this information he has access to the date of the inspection, type of inspection, and how critical or noncritical the violation was. He also has the capability to view other restaurants for complaints and which inspections occurred to each complaint. If needed, John could also contact the Infectious Disease Section for more information. (Realmuto
Hepatitis E is an emerging viral infection able to cause chronic infection, and can lead to liver cirrhosis in immunosuppressed individuals. Currently ribavirin is the only treatment available, but some patients cannot tolerate this drug whilst others have infection with a ribavirin resistant virus due to a viral genetic mutation. Understanding an individual patients immune (T cell) response to HEV infection and how this changes during treatment is key to tailoring ribavirin treatment for an individual patient (optimum dose and length of treatment), and developing new therapeutic strategies such as T cell therapies to deal with HEV
Hepatitis A: Current locations have been locked down and an official decontamination has commenced. All surfaces, employees, and product are being tested but we have not determined the exact cause. The stores rating on local food testing has always maintained at acceptable levels we hope to hear more after all product results are in.
Hepatitis A is a liver disease caused by the Hepatitis A virus. It may cause fever, malaise, anorexia, nausea, and abdominal discomfort, followed within a few days by jaundice the disease ranges in clinical severity from a mild illness lasting 1–2 weeks to a severely disabling disease lasting several months. Good personal hygiene and proper sanitation can help prevent Hepatitis A. Transmission may occur by direct person-to-person contact; or from contaminated water, ice, or shellfish from contaminated water; or from fruits, vegetables, or other foods that are eaten uncooked, but which may become contaminated during handling. Hepatitis A can affect anyone