Hate Crime : The Termful Effects Of Hate Crimes

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Introduction
Hate crimes have a devastating effect, beyond the harm inflicted on any, one victim (). They resound through families, communities, and the entire nation, as others fear that they too could be threatened, attacked, or forced from their homes, because of what they look like, who they are, where they worship, whom they love, or whether they have a disability (). Hate crime is defined as an offense in which the victim is targeted because of the actual or perceived race, color, religion, disability, sexual orientation, or national origin of that victim (Sullaway, 2004). On the basis of the legal definition, most researchers of hate crime tend to conceptualize hate crime as a manifestation of intergroup conflict or violence (e.g., Levin & McDevitt, 2002; Levin & Rabrenovic, 2001). They are motivated by the distinctiveness of the victim(s)because the offender only targets victims with different groups (Sun, K, 2006) and they tend to justify themselves with numerous excuses, however, researchers have now been questioning the offender's mentality. With this sort of conceptualization of a hate crime and the reasoning behind them, it has then since begun to change clinical interventions with the victims of a hate crime and the research done is now focusing on the objective of the offender of a hate crime and distinctive factors or with lead to the offender's mentality.
Research
Researchers have found that hate crimes can be promoted by several variables, such as social learning processes that can give some sort of reinforcement and a symbolic interaction to continue this hate attitude or behavior toward the victim(s) (), strained economic conditions, and the traitorous historical events, such as the terrorist act of the Twin Towers, September 11, 2001. The difference between the victim and the offender also do not explain the causality for hate crimes because of the hate offenders’ explanations for their offenses tend to misrepresent the social reality about what actually causes the crimes(https://www.psychologytoday.com/sites/default/files/attachments/35629/the-legal-definition-hate-crime.pdf). The research I am conducting is to determine whether offenders have a psychological disability that they

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