From 1998 to 2003, the incidence rates for HPV-associated cancers of the tonsils and tongue increased 3.0% per year, while non-HPV cancers of the mouth and throat decreased during this time (Ramqvist and Dalianis, 2010).
Considering the possibility of malignancy in the lesion, the patient underwent a punch biopsy and a fine needle aspiration biopsy within one month of being seen by the ENT surgeon. Microscopically, the specimen consisted of normal appearing squamous epithelium overlying inflammed minor salivary glands which completely replaced by an infiltrate of lymphocytes and plasma cells. No malignant cells were seen in the fine needle aspirate.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is made up of double stranded DNA with a capsid. Their viral genome is consisting of such as early (E) gene like E6 and E7encodes for oncoproteins and late (L) gene such as L1 and L2 encodes for structural proteins like capids. There are more than 100 different types of HPV identified and they generally infect around cutaneous or mucosal areas. HPV viral genome can be categorized into low risk (LR) and high risk (HR). High risk types such as HPV-16 and -18 are ones that can develop into cancer and other tumors mostly in genital area or a head and neck squamous cell. Low risk types such as HPV-6 and -11 are more frequently found I larynx or genital area (Klozar et al., 2010). Therefore, careful evaluation such as risk factors, or possibly a new vaccination to prevent against HPV related to oropharyngeal SCC should be questioned in public health
Laryngeal carcinoma is considered as the most common head and neck neoplasm diagnosed by the otolaryngologists (40% of patients had stage III or IV when first evaluated), while 98% have squamous cell carcinoma (the most common pathological type); in addition, the incidence of lymph node metastasis depends on the tumour stage (30% for T4 lesions).1
In the United States alone, an estimated 34,360 people received a diagnosis of oropharyngeal cancer in 2007; of these, 7,550 (5,180 men and 2,370 women) died. On average, more than 25% of people who develop oropharyngeal cancer will die of the disease, with only 60% surviving for more than 5 years. In fact, oropharyngeal cancer is as common as leukemia and claims more lives than either melanoma or cervical cancer. Since the mid-1970s, oropharyngeal cancer rates have increased approximately 15%, with significant disparities in some population groups. For instance, oropharyngeal cancer prevalence is significantly higher in males than in females. Prevalence is also higher in Hispanic and black males than it is in white males. The risk of oropharyngeal cancer increases with age, and occurrence is highest in persons older than 50 years and peaks between ages 60 and 70 years. However, there has been a startling 5-fold increase in the incidence of oral cancer in patients younger than 40 years, many of whom have no known risk factors. HPV is associated with 15% to 35% of head and neck cancers worldwide. Fifty percent to 90% of OSCCs in the pharynx, tonsil, and tongue are HPV-positive. Chaturvedi and colleagues investigated the impact of HPV on the
Oral squamous cell carcinomas are rapid in growth and are not due to sunlight exposure. Refusal to eat due to the tumors on the tongue and/or surrounding gums, drooling, bad breath, and swollen lymph nodes, are symptoms. Oral carcinoma’s needs to be diagnosed early. If not, the prognoses is not good and death is eminent.
All malignant tumors have tendency to metastasize and OSCC metastasize via lymphatic channel before any route. Sentinel lymph node(SLN) is defined as the first lymph node to which cancer cells are most likely to spread from a primary tumor and oral cancer drains first in neck nodes. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is a procedure in which the sentinel lymph node is identified, removed, and examined to determine whether cancer cells are present and can give information regarding spread of tumor. This information can help surgeons to determine the histological stage of the cancer per-operatively, and develop an appropriate treatment plan accordingly. If SLN is negative then elective neck dissection can be avoided that helps to reduce morbidity with better cosmetic outcome, preserve lymph node containing B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, and other types of immune system cells, hazard of injuring nerves (spinal accessory nerve, cervical plexus, laryngeal nerve, phrenic nerve, facial nerve and lingual nerve) and vessels (internal jugular vein and tributaries, carotid artery and its branches) per-operatively.
In the United States, cervical cancer is known as one of the most common cancers amongst females and it is estimated that 1/3 of the females diagnosed will die (Parkin, Bray, Ferlay, & Pisani, 2005). HPV 16 is the most common detected virus in cervical cancer patients, but there are 14 HPV types that are considered high-risk (Parkin, Bray, Ferlay, & Pisani, 2005). HPV is related to cervical cancer as the virus changes the cells of the cervix and causes cervical dysplasia, which untreated, leads to cancer (Dizon & Krychman, 2010). Examining the problem from a global perspective, Biological Study on Cervical Cancer (IBSCC) study group, concluded that “HPV DNA was detected in 93% of the tumors and … HPV 16 was present in 50% of the specimens…” (Bosch, Manos, Muñoz, Sherman, Jansen, Peto & Shan, 1995). This group collected samples of 1000 patients whom were diagnosed with stage 3 cervical cancer from 32 hospitals in 22 countries (Bosch, Manos, Muñoz, Sherman, Jansen, Peto & Shan, 1995). As, represented earlier with current statistics, it’s evident that more people are diagnosed each year with cervical cancer that have HPV present
Human Papillomavirus is a broad term used to describe over one hundred and fifty related viruses. The Human Papillomavirus, better known as HPV is named for the warts (papillomas) that become present on the skin of an HPV victim. HPV is transmitted via intamainte skin-to-skin contact. Each year a small number of cases of HPV go unknown because no symptoms are present or the body fights away the virus. Other cases that do not go away commonly are expressed in genital warts and cancers. Some cancers commonly developed from HPV are cervical, vaginal, anus, back of the throat, tonsil and tongue cancers (What). In recent years researchers,
Malignancies of the vulva, rear-end, and throat might be dealt with surgically and additionally with chemotherapy and radiation. Every year around 12,000 new instances of cervical disease happen in U.S. ladies. This figure does exclude instances of ladies who are determined to have and treated for HPV-related precancerous conditions. Around 9000 instances of HPV-related butt-centric and throat malignancies in ladies are accounted for every year. In men, around 12,000 instances of HPV-related diseases
Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) type 6 or 11 is most common causative organism for benign epithelial tumors of the upper respiratory tract termed as papilloma1. Both adults and children can have this problem. Infants and children may present with wheezing, hoarseness, or stridor. In children between two to five years of age, the diagnosis is made by inspection of the larynx. The goals of treatment are debulking, improvement of the voice and remission of the papillomas2. Pediatric patients require multiple treatments, most commonly with the CO2 LASER.
Oral cancer is one of the most common and threatening disease. Thousands have died and are continuing to die today in the United States and around the world. Numerous of people have been diagnosed from oral cancer this year in the United States and other countries like South Asia or in the Northwestern Europe. This typical cancer infused with strength can cause severe pain, discomfort, numbness around and inside the mouth. If the cancer is not treated quickly and properly,the cancer can spread to the body and affect other organs eventually leading to a death road. Oral cancer is sometimes difficult to cure if it's not detected on time in an early stage and it´s important to have precaution and spread awareness for this disease.
Evidence for a causal involvement of HPV in the pathogenesis of OPSCC comes from epidemiologic and molecular studies. The earliest suggestion of a possible link between HPV and squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity (OSCC) was made by Syrjanen et al (1983) where the group observed that some of these tumours have morphological and immunohistochemical features indicative of HPV infection. 59 Subsequent studies have supported the predilection of the virus for oropharyngeal cancers. In two case series (1996 and 1997), 50% and 60% of tonsillar carcinomas were HPV positive, respectively, in comparison to 6% and 10% of tumours at other oral sites.60,61 Additionally, Gillison et al (2000) and Stransky et al (2011) confirmed that the only HNC subsite with a demonstrated carcinogenic role for HPV was the oropharynx.21,62
Human papilloma virus (HPV) is a commonplace sexually transmitted infection, with approximately 14 million new cases each year in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). HPV can be found in the genital area, in addition to the mouth and throat. Occasionally these viruses cause benign warts, but usually HPV infections are undetected and go away without any complications. But you should know that there is a connection between a certain type of oral HPV and oral cancer.
A total of 1855 biopsy specimens were accessioned at our biopsy services during the study period (2002 – 2006). In this period, 37 cases were salivary gland neoplasms accounting to 1.99% of all biopsy specimens accessioned. Of 37 cases, 11 were benign neoplasms (29.72%) and 26 were malignant (70.27%). The common tumors overall was Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) and Muco-epidermoid carcinoma (MEC) (Table 1).