Among survivors of urban violence, 79% had not sought help from mental health care institutions (Van der Ploeg et al., 1985). This implies that many individuals who have been exposed to war and to other violence are not seen by health care professionals. An important question is how these individuals have adapted. If they did well without professional help, then we might learn from their ways of coping. If, on the other hand, they did not adapt well, this would raise the question why they did not seek support from health care professionals. Knowledge about motives for (not) seeking professional help may enable policy makers and health care professionals to improve the fit between the needs of survivors of war and other violence and the health care organization. The present study was conducted among a large random community sample of people who experienced World War II (WWII) to find out what proportion of the Dutch WW II survivors sought medical or mental help and what the characteristics of these help-seeking survivors are as compared to non-help-seeking survivors. The majority of these survivors experienced the German occupation of the Netherlands (1940-1945). Others experienced the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies (1942-1945) and the subsequent violent Indonesian independence struggle (1945-1950). (pp. 243-61)
Furthermore, the lack of proper rehabilitation or care programs post-war will also reflect the state of the nations. After the catastrophes of war have subsided, the affected areas are left in not only physical ruin, but also mental and emotional ruin. Child soldiers, who have been separated from their families, are stuck between not knowing if their other family members were
Rates of trauma and mental illness are reported to be disproportionately higher among American veterans, especially those of the recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. The barriers to care after civilian reentry further disadvantage this already vulnerable population. The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have been the longest sustained US military operations since the Vietnam era, sending more than 2.2 million troops into battle and resulting in more than 6,600 deaths and 48,000 injuries. Veterans are at risk mental health challenges, as well as family instability, elevated rates of homelessness, and joblessness. Veterans have disproportionate rates of mental illness, particularly posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance abuse disorders, depression, anxiety, and military sexual trauma.
The following international, national, and local agencies are aimed at keeping the public safe while seeking optimum health and well-being for all citizens involved. They provide assessments, develop policies, assurance, meet unmet needs, and enable access to health care (McCowan, 2013). They hone communities’ capabilities to respond effectually to health issues by shielding and endorsing the health of the community and its residents (McKenzie & Pinger, 2016-b).
This link was made most evident in the veterans who returned home from service in the Gulf and Iraq Wars due to them suffering from a wide variety of behavioral and physical issues, including PTSD, injuries sustained from blast exposure, chronic joint pain, substance abuse, long term effects to substances used in biological warfare, injuries from working with chemicals and machinery during their time of service (Heady, Gale). These issues are made worse for veterans living in rural areas due to the lack of access to VA healthcare.
The causes of these elevated levels of suffering in military veterans and their families’ lives are multifactorial and cannot be just the direct result of combat exposure. The factors contributing to this very large number and significant scale of problems are not all fully understood, but are alarming. Most of these problems can be attributed as direct or indirect effect of a decade of
These fighters develop aggressive behavior and several depression issues, even suicidal thoughts run through their mind. These type of problems can lead soldiers to use alcohol and drugs, as well as abusiveness towards others. According to the Headquarters, Department of the Army, “From 2001 to 2011, alcohol use associated with physical domestic violence in army families increased by 54% and with child abuse by 40% This trend may be associated with research linking increased alcohol consumption with partner aggression among veterans suffering from combat related wounds, injuries and illnesses” (1). Alcohol and drug use rates have increased rapidly, and this can result from the soldiers anger towards the pain and suffering they went through during battle. They react to everything in a different way when returning from war because they in their mind they think they are in danger, when they are not. In paragraph 4, the author says, “High risk behaviors that have resulted in elevated numbers of car crashes and drug overdoses, elevated levels of homelessness and divorce.” This example demonstrates that war leads soldiers to use more alcohol and develop the habit of using drugs. This can result in a real bad situation where these fighters partners might want a divorcement, as well as they can end up homeless on the streets because of the drug use. Sarah A.M. Ford states,
Even though there is a high risk of mental health problems among veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan, there has been no systematic studies of mental health care utilization among these veterans after deployment (Hoge, Auchterlonie, and Milliken, 2006). Such studies are an important part of measuring the mental health burden of the current war and ensuring that there are adequate resources to meet the mental health care needs of veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan (Hoge, Auchterlonie, and Milliken, 2006). When a person is in the military, he or she may experience a lot of traumatic events; therefore, PTSD becomes more prevalent in their lives post-war. There was a research conducted after other military conflicts that has shown that deployment stressors and exposure to combat result in considerable risks of mental health problems, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression, substance abuse, impairment in social functioning and in the ability to work, and the increased use of health care services (Hoge, Castor, Messer, McGurk, Cotting, & Koffman, 2004).Veterans in America have a history of mental illness, thus it is important that there are a variety of treatment options available for veterans. Most veterans with mental health problems refused to go in for services because
In the last decade, over 1 million United States’ service members have been dispatched to conflict inflicted areas in the Middle East. As a result, there is also an increase in the number of veterans returning home from service due to either injury, illnesses, expiration of their time in combat, or discharge. Most of the veterans, however, have several health issues which they developed or experienced after deployment ., and access to care has become an issue for many of them. Therefore, the dDevelopment of new and innovative interventions meant to address these health issues has become a national priority. This chapter contains an overview of Vveterans’ healthcare needs and the issues they face while accessing healthcare. The significance
According to the National Center for Veterans Analysis and Statistics (2014), there are currently an estimated 19.4 million veterans, of which 1.6 million are women. Eight percent of the US population has served in the US military and 33% of the US population is directly related to someone who has served (Meyer, Writer, & Brim, 2016). Many returning service members face complex mental and behavioral health challenges in readjusting to life after deployment (American Psychological Association [APA], 2016a). Data indicate that one-third of returning Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) service members have reported symptoms of mental-health or cognitive problems (APA, 2016a). This includes concerns of suicidal ideation, posttraumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, military sexual trauma, adjustment disorders, substance use disorders, depression, and anxiety disorders, among others. As OEF and OIF deployed service members continue to return home with high rates of mental health disorders, there are concerns regarding the availability and adequacy of mental health
They connect victims with resources and services, assist with the reporting process, and address concerns of retaliation and physical safety (U.S Commission on Civil Rights, 2013). The Battered Woman’s Justice Project has a military and veterans advocacy program that provides training and technical assistance on military-related intimate partner violence and military sexual assault. The program’s funded by a grant from the Department of Justice, Office of Violence against Women. The program aims to improve the partnership between military and civilian systems that respond to these particular crimes. They want to promote a meaningful partnership among government agencies and organizations that develop or administer public policy on issues that affect victims of military-related domestic and sexual violence. Lastly, the program works to enhance the capacity of civilian and military advocates to provide appropriate support, interventions, and advocacy to military-related victims of intimate partner violence and sexual assault (Military and Veterans Advocacy Program). The Department of Defense works with civilian medical facilities to provide reimbursable healthcare (U.S Commission on Civil Rights, 2013). The VA should establish collaborative relationships with state and community-level mental health and substance abuse agencies to provide access to needed care for women
Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) has affected service members and their families more adversely than previous wars. Many members are coming home with increasingly severe serious injuries and trauma-related mental health needs, specifically co-occurring Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Substance Use Disorder (SUD) (Flynn and Hassan 2010; Frey et al. 2014). SUD refers to all substances that can be abused, including alcohol. Military culture makes it hard to address these issues because of the stigma attached to having mental health issues. Studying Military families as a whole opposed to just the service member is a new concept in military culture, researchers are finding that treating the whole family
With seven billion people in the world, healthcare and healthcare infrastructure are increasingly important. Public health professionals are currently focusing on the following five topic areas to improve global health. By ensuring that everyone can have access to adequate care, the healthcare community can reduce premature mortality rates and the severity of epidemics.
This paper defines and explains the six core functions of epidemiology: Public health surveillance, field investigation, analytic studies, evaluations, linkages, and policy development. The core functions of epidemiology lay down a foundation on which epidemiologists can begin to work from. This paper will look at the benefits of incorporating all six of these functions into a working plan when health officials, medical personnel, first responders, etc., encounter a disease or illness that needs to be identified, treated and contained.
Although volunteers for Medecins Sans Frontiers are commonly stationed in various countries with a dire healthcare worker shortage, regions with refugee camps and internally displaced persons are also a focus for this organization. Refugees and internally displaced persons often come from war torn regions and live in close confines with poor sanitation and limited resources. These living situations become a breeding ground for diseases and other health issues like malnutrition, yet the individuals lack access to any sort of healthcare. The organization also responds quickly when regions suddenly experience an increased need for healthcare, for example in times of an epidemic or a natural disaster. Medecins Sans Frontiers’ involvement across its varying regions and their attempt to address a broad spectrum of healthcare truly show how altruistic the organization is to individuals regardless of race, gender, or religion.