Bones are structured to provide strength, protection, and movement. In addition the structure allows the bones to serve as a reservoir for several minerals including calcium because calcium can quickly move between the bone and the blood.
• Water: Inadequate water intake can cause dehydration and electrolyte imbalances • Minerals and vitamins: o Calcium and vitamin D: Osteoporosis can be caused by lack of calcium and vitamin D intake
Year introduced: 1992 2. Explain the relationship between calcium and bones. The bones are made up of two minerals, including calcium. Calcium is critical in order to maintain the level of bone mass to support structures of the body. If calcium is truncated in other regions of the body then it will be released from the bones into the bloodstream sending it to the appropriate destination. Bones begin to weaken if an insufficient amount of calcium is not consumed. The body will discontinue absorbing calcium if an abundant amount of calcium is consumed, in which vitamin D aids this process.
Another component of bone and teeth is phosphorous and calcium, with calcium being required for blood clotting along with aiding in the contraction of muscles.
Rickets is seen during periods of rapid growth because during growth a great deal of vitamin D, phosphorus, and calcium are needed. “The predominant cause is a vitamin D deficiency, but lack of adequate calcium in the diet may also lead to rickets. Although it can occur in adults, the majority of cases occur in children suffering from severe malnutrition, usually resulting from famine or starvation during the early stages of childhood” (Rickets, 2007). If a child is severely lacking theses important vitamins and minerals when they are rapidly growing, then the body will compensate for the nutrients’ deficiencies. “Your body senses an imbalance of calcium and phosphorus in your bloodstream and reacts by taking calcium and phosphorus from your bones to raise blood levels to where they need to be. This softens or weakens the bone structure, resulting most commonly in skeletal deformities such as bowlegs or improper curvature of the spine” (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2006).
The body can synthesize vitamin D with the help of sunlight, from a precursor that the body makes from cholesterol. Osteoporosis is, " any failure to synthesize adequate vitamin D or obtain enough from foods sets the stage for a loss of calcium from the bones, which can result in fractures" (Whitney & Rolfes, 2013, p. 349). There are several common risk factors for developing osteoporosis, which lead to the condition of reduced bone density.
Justification Osteoporosis is commonly known around the world as the numbers continue to increase every year. Osteoporosis is known to cause problems in middle aged women and occasionally effecting some men (1), currently reaching the number of 200million women diagnosed with osteoporosis (2). Arthritis Organisation states that anyone can get osteoporosis
Children in their developing age must consume adequate amounts of milk and dairy products in order to promote bone development and prevent the risks of obtaining rickets. Sodas hinder bone growth as it creates an acidic environment in the human body. Bones were actually used as jewelleries, musical instruments, and weapons
include Calcium and Phosphate both can only be useful to bones when the needed amount of Vitamin D is present in the body to absorb it. The elements create strong bones and protect against disorders such as osteomalacia, which is the softening of bones. This vitamin is also needed for your immune system to function properly, since it helps combat infections and viruses. The immune system is not the only system in your body affected by Vitamin D, in fact almost everything you do is aided by Vitamin D, the respiratory system is just another example. The reason we can breathe easily is because our body has the recommended amount of Vitamin D to ensure healthy
Once in the duodenum, calcium is absorbed through active transport, a process that requires assistance of calcium-binding protein. Vitamin D, in the form of calcitriol, stimulates synthesis of the calcium-binding proteins. 98-99% of calcium is stored in bones and teeth, while the remaining 1-2% is stored in muscle tissue and blood. There is no RDA for calcium; but the recommended intake is 1,000-1,200 mg/day. Typically, a higher calcium proportion is required for children and adolescents between the ages of 9 and 18, as well as elderly men and women. Whole food calcium sources include milk and milk products, dark
To help fight off osteoporosis early in childhood I would feed children milk, eggs, fish, liver, and give them a children’s supplement if I feel they have not met their dietary need of calcium that day. Also, salt is something I would keep my children away from. Salt can cause calcium loss within our bodies, causing our bones to lose the calcium needed for that day.
The study involved 168 women who were placed into 4 groups: a placebo group, a group that was given milk powder containing 1g of calcium, a group given calcium tablets 1g/night, and a group given calcium tablets 1g/night and exercise regimen. The group with the exercise went through 4 hours of extra weight-bearing exercise per week. Bone mineral density at the lumbar spine, 3 hip sites, and two different sites of the tibia were measured in 6-month intervals. A food record also evaluated dietary intake. By the end of the study, Prince and his colleagues found that calcium supplementation by either calcium tablets or milk powder resulted in loss of bone mineral density at the hip sites. The group that was given calcium and exercised had less bone loss at the femoral neck site than any other group. Overall, there was significant reduction in the rate of bone loss at ultra distal site of the tibia. This study showed that supplements and exercise helped promote an increase in bone mineral density in order to prevent other health risks
There are two types of osteoporosis. The main stages in bone development are early childhood, puberty, and menopause. “During childhood, liquid crystals of calcium within this cartilage solidify through a process called “mineralization”. For that mineralization to occur and keep occurring throughout childhood, however, it’s vitally important that children get enough exercise, calcium and vitamin D, says Laura Tosi, MD, chief of Orthopedic Surgery. Outside play, once a staple of childhood, has given way to video games and television. And if kids don’t play outside, they often don’t get enough sunlight to make adequate vitamin D. Also, kids are much more likely to drink soda or juice these days than milk, which remains one of the best sources of calcium and vitamin D in early life. In fact, variations in the amount of calcium kids get may account for five to 10 percent difference in adult bone mass and a 50 percent difference in the hip fracture rate later in life. Chalk up that adolescent growth spurt to the fact that the majority of bone is laid down in adolescence. This “speeding up” of bone formation begins around age 11 in girls and 12 or 13 in boys. Unfortunately, this is also the time when girls begin to significantly reduce their calcium intake. In fact, over 80 percent of girls age nine to 19 don’t get the recommended average daily amount of calcium. Adolescent girls are also at greater risk for anorexia and other eating disorders than boys, which can wreak havoc with estrogen levels,
Calcium plays a large role in the human body. About 99% of the calcium in our body is found in our teeth and bones. Along with other minerals, calcium regulates heart and muscle contractions, bone structure, blood clotting and nerve connections. Because these are vital bodily functions, if the human body is not receiving enough calcium it will take calcium from bones, leaving them weak and brittle. To avoid this, it is essential for everyone to have enough calcium intake, so their body doesn’t resort to robbing calcium from their bones. Humans can get calcium from common foods such as dairy products, broccoli, canned fish, or nuts.
Physiology There are numerous factors that contribute to the development of this horrible disease, but the most important factor is vitamin D deficiency. When the minerals in osteoid crystallize, they require adequate concentration of calcium and phosphate. When the concentration is not at the correct level, ossification does not proceed normally (Huether & McCance, 2008). Vitamin D regulates the absorption of calcium from the intestine. When there is a lack of vitamin D, the concentration of calcium begins to fall (Huether & McCance, 2008). The body begins to regulate this calcium drop by increases the amount of PTH synthesis and secretion (Huether & McCance, 2008). An increase of PTH causes a clearance of phosphate and without the correct levels of phosphate mineralization of the bones cannot proceed in the correct manor (Huether & McCance, 2008). The abnormality of bone growth can occur in spongy and compact bone (Mayo