Heart Failure : A Progressive Clinical Syndrome Characterized By Impairment Of Filling Pressures

781 Words Aug 4th, 2015 4 Pages

Heart failure is a progressive clinical syndrome characterized by impairment of filling pressures or blood ejection, neurohormonal system activation and molecular derangements. Typical signs, symptoms and other investigative studies like echocardiography, cardiac MRI, exercise testing and biomarkers diagnose heart failure in children (Rossano & Shaddy 2014; Hsu & Pearson 2009b). Essential part of the evaluation includes exhausting effort to determine the etiology of the heart failure in order to identify prognosis and formulate management plan. Cardiovascular causes of heart failure in children are diverse and extensive. It can be divided into subgroups: congenital heart disease and structurally normal heart (Hsu & Pearson 2009a). Congenital heart disease includes volume overload (e.g. left to right shunts and atriventricular and semilunar valve regurgitation), pressure overload (e.g. left or right sided obstructive lesions) and complex cardiac malformations (e.g. single ventricle physiology and systemic right ventricle). Structurally normal heart includes primary cardiomyopathies (dilated, hypertrophic and restrictive) and secondary (e.g arrhythmogenic, ischemic and infiltrative) (table 1).

In this chapter, we will highlight and discuss heart failure in specific cardiac lesions.

Tetralogy of Fallot population:


Tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) is the most common cyanotic congenital heart disease. It has four cardinal cardiac features: over-riding…
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