Heart Failure, Cardiac Arrhythmia And Thromboembolism

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Cardiac manifestation is in two stages; acute phase characterized by high grade parasitemia with flu-like symptoms: fever, malaise, myalgias, sweating. Cardiac involvement occurs in 90% of cases with conduction abnormalities that last 6-8 weeks. Spontaneous recovery in 95% of the affected patients is expected. Chronic phase indeterminate form in which there is no physical signs or clinical evidence of organ damage with subclinical degree of cardiac involvement after Echo/Holter study. About 10-14% indeterminate form progress to the chronic form (Wynne & Braunwald, 2008). Nunes, Maria Carmo Pereira, et al. (2012) observes “typical clinical presentations include three basic syndromes: heart failure, cardiac arrhythmia and…show more content…
Other imaging studies include echocardiographic and Doppler techniques that provide useful structural and functional information in the detection of early myocardial damage, risk assessment of prognosis, disease progression, and management of patients with Chagas disease (Harry, 2007). Electrocardiography (ECG) has been found useful in the disease screening and monitoring. According to Harry (2007), cardiac damage is suspected by ≥1 of the following ECG findings: right bundle-branch block, left anterior fascicular block, AV blocks, multiform ventricular beats, sinus bradycardia, abnormal ST-T segment, and abnormal T and Q waves. The chest radiograph shows enlargement of the cardiac silhouette due to the enlargement of left ventricle, although generalized cardiomegaly is often seen. There is appearance of the evidence of pulmonary venous hypertension in the lung fields and interstitial or alveolar edema too. The electrocardiogram often shows sinus tachycardia or atrial fibrillation, ventricular arrhythmias, left atrial abnormality, diffuse nonspecific ST-T wave abnormalities, and sometimes intraventricular conduction defects and low voltage (Goldberg, 2010). Echocardiography and radionuclide ventriculography show left ventricular dilatation, with normal or minimally thickened or thinned walls, and systolic dysfunction (reduced ejection fraction). Primary amyloidosis (build up of
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