Heart Failure ( Hf )

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Considered a major health problem in the United States, heart failure (HF) is a syndrome involving insufficient pumping and/or filling of the heart (Lewis, Heitkemper, Dirkson, & Bucher, 2014). As HF progresses, the heart cannot continue to meet the oxygen demands of the body’s tissues due to a decreased cardiac output. Acute HF and chronic HF have replaced the term congestive heart failure (CHF) since not all HF patients experience pulmonary congestion, but CHF is still commonly used in the clinical setting (Lewis et al., 2014). Regardless of the terminology, HF typically results in poor outcomes and a high incidence of hospital readmissions.
Patient Profile
Reason for Hospital Admission The patient is a fifty-seven year old Caucasian male who presented to the University Medical Center triage center on September 6, 2015 with shortness of breath (SOB) and labored breathing. The patient’s SOB was of moderate severity with a three-week duration of gradual onset, recurrent, worsening, constant, worse with exertion, and relived by sitting up. The patient reported an inability to climb one flight of stairs without experiencing SOB. The patient presented with bilateral lower extremity edema, abdominal swelling and distention, anasarca, jugular vein distention (JVD), wheezing, and productive cough with phlegm. The patient reported a fifty-pound weight gain over the past few weeks because prescription diuretics were ineffective when he stated “fluid pills haven’t
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