The lack of space required many places to be converted into temporary triage locations. Triage is a quick way to streamline examination and get serious cases handled first. Another issue was moving bedridden patients after their surgeries because of the narrow hatchways and doorways. The amount of patients required another ship to be dispatched to accommodate the patients. The lack of supplies and the variations of injuries caused continuous problems for surgeons, especially those who were becoming extremely fatigued. A common issue was that the extent of injuries could not have been determined completely until the patient was on the operating table. For example patients who were referred to as D and B in the report took the constant attention and the former succumbed to his injuries after two hours. the latter survived after given saline, but still needed constant attention. Another example is an unnamed patient who was not examined for over forty hours, had developed large maggots in his wounds. Unlike modern operating rooms, supplies could not be set up according to procedure. Because of the time required to properly sanitize blankets, many soldiers were without one. (Darby)
One of the first nurses to see battle injuries was Ms. Fannie Beers who described the arrival of the first 200 soldiers at a makeshift hospital “they came with some form of disease whether on foot or stretcher, barefoot or on swollen feet”. (12) The battlefront hospitals were only that of open area sites with conditions anything but sanitary, with blood, human waste and amputated limbs covering the ground. The first battle women encountered was with their selves. Only their strong religious faith steeled them against sickening sights of disease and infection. These nurses learned to rein in their feelings and believed patients redemption hallowed their work.
When the first ships arrived on the ports of Canada, quarantine shelters that were prepared for emigrants became so overcrowded that military tents outside shelters were used temporarily. The tents were often floored with wooden boards and patients were supplied with cots. These tents provided adequately during fine weather, but provided insufficient protection when it was cold and damp. Gradually, as more emigrants arrived, even the tents became overcrowded and emigrants were forced to sleep without shelter on bare ground with no cover except for the clothes they wore. The desperate need for accommodation prevented their immediate removal from quarantine vessels. Their confinement on board caused emigrants to contract more disease that was spread further as a result of lack of ventilation and lack of medical aid on ships as doctors and nurses were desperately needed at hospitals. The overcrowded sheds were unsuitable for hospital services, and, despite the number of complaints about the conditions of quarantines, nothing could be done. More hospitals were built, but remained unfinished, as carpenters refused to complete construction for fear of disease. Yet more emigrants who already suffered from disease were suffering from
There were more than 40,000 concentration camps during the Holocaust. One of the worst and most destructive camp was Auschwitz, which was located in southern Poland (“Gilbert” 1). It contained three camps that were all known as Auschwitz. Auschwitz was a death camp and a concentration camp that claimed the lives of thousands. Survivors say that when the doors first open on the boxcar at Auschwitz there was an orchestra playing, this was to trick the prisoners into thinking there were somewhere better (“The Death Camps” 21). Physician Gisella Perl described the overall picture of Auschwitz she received when she first arrived as “Like big, black clouds, the smoke of the crematory hung over the camp. Sharp red tongues of flame licked the sky,
Civil War Nursing Over 5000 volunteer nurses’ north and south served in military hospitals during the Civil War. Nurses were of all sorts and came from all over. Women wanted to be involved in this national struggle in any way they could. They did not want to stay home and play
Des Pres, Terrence. The Survivor: An Anatomy of Life in the Death Camps. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.
Medical Experiments of the Holocaust Kaitlin Holocaust in History January 6, 2013 Many brutal atrocities were committed during the Holocaust by the Nazi party against anyone they viewed as “unpure”. This included the Jews, Gypsies, homosexuals, Afro-Germans, Slavs, communists, the handicapped, and the mentally disabled. These groups were targeted, stripped away of their
During the Holocaust, the living conditions for the Jewish population were horrifying and unthought of. The lack of sanitary facilities meant they had to remove dirt and pests from clothing by waiting in a line that took up most of the day. The barracks that the prisoners slept in was in terrible conditions and the rooms were damp with leaky roofs (“Auschwitz…”). The health and how the jewish lived was no concern of the Nazi soldiers.
In this camp stayed many people. Most of the people in this section were considered “ill, but curable”. Due to their health conditions these people didn't work, when the others had to. The camp mainly consisted of women or other prisoners who had just been traveling in tight train cars. Many got ill after traveling for days like this.
The Great Depression 2. a) The quality of life on the Relief camps were horrible .Majority of the men working on these camps were broke and tired farm boys. These men were treated like salves. They would receive 20 cents a day for manual labor. A few of their tasks would
In the most suitable cases, the soldiers had cabins, which were crude, small, and very unsturdy. In most instances, however, they got tents made out of canvas, which frequently ripped and did not help keep out cold in the dead winter. Because of this, many men got illnesses such as pneumonia, diarrhea, and dysentery. In fact, so many got sick that the hospitals were overflowing, even though each section had a hospital for itself. Some soldiers’ wives agreed to be nurses to help, but there were not enough medical supplies, so many died. Out of 12,000 men, 3,000 died and 2,000 left because they were sick.
Finally, the conditions of the camp were unsanitary and unsafe. There was a high rate of disease and a lack of proper shelter. Doctor Waldo gave significant insight into life at the camp. “ I can’t endure it! Why are we sent here to starve and freeze?” The condition of the camp was so bad that the soldiers felt completely alone, miserable and as if they had been sent there to die.
One of the most famous concentration camps, Auschwitz, had some of the poorest living conditions. In Auschwitz, the prisoners lived crammed tightly in small, brick barracks. Since the prisoners simply couldn’t all fit inside these barracks, they were also forced into basements and lofts, along with hundreds of others. The tight living quarters were a main factor in the spreading of diseases and epidemics. In another concentration camp named “Birkenau”, the barracks had two styles which included both brick and wood. The brick barracks were hastily built, and were very dangerous and unsafe. Even though these brick barracks weren’t fit to hold people inside them, more than 700 prisoners were assigned to each barrack. The barracks did not have any way to heat or cool the rooms, and also lacked any sanitary facilities. The second style of barrack at the Birkenau concentration camp was another wooden barrack, except these were made to fit approximately fifty-two horses, not hundreds of prisoners. These barracks had many rodents and vermin, and had no way to prevent the damp roofs from leaking on the prisoners. Also, the foul smell and prisoner’s diarrhea made the already difficult living conditions much
In Desert Exile, Uchida recalls, “One morning I saw some women emptying bed pans into the troughs where we washed our faces.” (Pg 592) These poor hygiene practices could quickly spread sickness throughout the camp, especially with weakened immune systems due to malnutrition. Uchida says, “...we were always hungry. Meals were uniformly bad and skimpy, with an abundance of starches such as beans and bread.” (Pg 593) Food, along with many other necessities, were scarce. The barracks were unfinished, allowing steady drafts of cold air in throughout the night. Uchida's mother had struggled with neuralgia, which could be easily aggravated by the cold. Conflict is a driving force in this memoir. The internees were put into these camps unjustly in fear of a Japanese attack similar to Pearl Harbor, even though most were American citizens who were protected under the Constitution and had no affiliation with Japan other than
Not many cared to live any longer. They had nothing. "Those who had gold in their mouths were listed by numbers, I had a gold crown."(49) They were skin and bone. They got just enough food to keep them alive and suffering. Many died everyday, yet no one even remembered, they were all soon forgotten. "Listen to me kid. Don’t forget that you are in a concentration camp. In this place, every man for himself... Let me give you advice: stop giving your ration of bread and soup to your old father. You can't help him anymore. You should be taking his ration... I thought deep down, not daring to admit to myself, to late to save your old man." (110) their identity was so lost he almost considered taking his dads