While discovering the Hellenistic Age, I learned about the history in Hellenistic civilization. Hellenism is the term typically to describe the spread of culture from the Greek civilization that developed after the reign of Alexander the Great. How does the Hellenistic Age differ from the Classical Age? The Classical Age, referred to as Hellenic Greek, was founded in 507 B.C.E. and concluded in 323 B.C.E. The Hellenistic Age was founded in 323 B.C.E. and concluded in 31 B.C.E. after the reign of Alexander the Great. The Classical Age was ruled by the Greek civilization in Greek city states and their territories. The Hellenistic Age established a great deal in the culture and Greek language around the places in Mediterranean, Middle East, Central and South Asia. There are three categories in the Hellenistic Age: cultural, religious, and political/military. The three categories will present the history to recognize how the people survived from the time of Hellenistic Age and Classical Age.
This paper will look at the political including economic, and cultural and social developments during the Hellenistic period. I personally found that there are many positive developments; whereas the least positive development I found were the multiple wars that ravaged the Hellenistic civilization especially the Wars of the Successors (322 – 275 B.C.).
In the 8th and 9th centuries civilization started possessing the Catholic faith. Spirit of learning always remained alive in the monasteries. Monks started coping the books and later Catholics saved Europe from the second collapse. Beginning of recovery learning saved also from political collapse since monasteries could work quickly to repair the devastation of invasion and the political collapse. Collapse didn’t happen mainly because during this era monastery and monks started following the traditions and monastic culture came back to England and Normandy after more than a century of utter destruction. Monasteries always encouraged and spread seeds of learning and later developed the first university system. The purpose of the monks was to cultivate a more disciplined spiritual life, but at the same time they made a critical contribution to the development of science, agriculture, farming, introduced crops industries or production methods. Major contribution to the Western civilization was made in progress of education and agriculture. Monks pioneered in producing wine and beer making. Monks were also important architects. Thanks to the great network of communication that existed between the varieties of monasteries technological information was able to spread rapidly. Monks were the first in the history that used waterpower and produced flour and cloth. In addition,
It also gave some indication of the wealth and prosperity of the monastery and, inside, would probably commemorate patrons who provided sustained support to the community. The most precious human remains in a monastic church were the relics of saints preserved in shrines behind the high altar. The Church became a center for learning, with the monks becoming cultural carriers transmitting the written treasures of the past by preserving and copying ancient texts. An example of this would be Hrotsvit. Hrotsvit wrote books about Christian legends and wrote Roman dramas with an Christian spin to it. Often, the only literate members of society were the monks/priest. It was the monks who made and transmitted written copies of the Bible and other ancient works from generation to generation. They organized some of the first libraries. They conducted scientific and other research to benefit the surrounding communities. They were expert farmers who were able to pass on the benefits of their expertise to peasants on the large manors. Monasticism has played a vital role in the creation, preservation, and transmission of culture. This is especially true of the Christian Monasticism during the Middle Ages.
The similarities and differences between the design, construction and environmental performance of a typical Mesopotamian ‘courtyard’ and a Roman ‘peristyle’ house
The Medieval monastery was established during the middle Ages, this was a place where people got together (mostly monks, nuns and other spiritual beings) and they spent their time praying, studying and most of all helping
Gardening is the activity of planting, cultivating and tending (Oxford dictionary 2015). The origins of gardening, and its fulfilment of a human need, date back to 1500bc where archaeologists discovered ancient paintings of opulent gardens by the Egyptians (Cellauro 2015). Recognition of the benefits of gardening as a therapeutic tool in occupational therapy date back to Hartwell (1933). It provides opportunities for social inclusion which is a central component in well-being (Grabbe et al 2013).
The veneration of deities has been a customary practice of humans for millennia. The first notable occurrence may have occurred around burial sites of the primitive Neanderthals and Homo-erectus. However, these ceremonies, if they can be called that, were more a prehistoric curiosity of life and death, rather than a deistic acknowledgment of an omnipotent god, or demon. It is also interesting to note, god worship becomes more developed in pursuance to the advancement of a civilization. This scrutiny can be attested in how synagogues, churches and mosques proliferate as civilizations grow. That is, the more prosperous a country becomes, the more they are disposed towards reverencing a deity greater than themselves. Take note of the
When thinking about a medieval monastery the first thing that comes to mind is the origin of the word monastery which comes from the Greek monos, meaning alone. Monasticism in itself is a way of life that is devoted to God in seclusion. A large part of monasticism is isolation, not only from the neighbors but from family. When taking the vows to be a monk one not only completely devotes ones life to God but all friends, family and earthly possessions are left behind. Taking the vows of monasticism takes brutal dedication and severe strength. What pushed Guibert of Nogent into monasticism is that his mother withdrew from the world after his father’s death. During that time he was left alone and
Buddhist temples and monasteries provided many services, contributing greatly to the society. Monasteries and temples had medical care and academic facilities, gave seeds for families to harvest for food and crops, press oil, and temporary housed the traveling public. When people came to take advantage of the services provided, they were than introduced to the Buddhist ways. They were also taught to believe that by giving their sons unselfishly to Buddhism, the rest of the family would greatly benefit. The monks and monastery staff members also used pictures, assisting non-educated people, in understanding fables, which explained and emphasized the Buddhist teachings. As a final note, Buddhism has done great things for the society
Monasticism was a way of life for those who thought everyday life too sinful, and decided to devote themselves to God, either communally in the monastery or lavriote, a life of solitude. St Benedict around five hundred and forty AD set down rules which were to become the basis for monastic life in the Catholic church; poverty, obedience, chastity, and work. In these monasteries theology was preserved. A different form of monasticism developed in Ireland due to the fact it was isolated from the rest of Europe. Monks were more like the hermits of Egypt rather those of Roman Christianity. Scholarship developed in these monasteries, also a new form of art called Hiberno-Saxon. These monasteries kept literacy skills alive. Monks would transcribe and decorate sacred texts by hand. Such texts include the Book of Kells and the Lindisfaire
The religion of Greece in early times was polytheistic. The religion was incorporated into every aspect of the culture including art, and literature. This was the religion that was practiced during the "Golden Age" of Greece. The gods of Hellenistic Greece existed in every form and fashion. There were gods for everything in life like government, sex, month of birth, trade, and human traits (i.e. wisdom, love, war, birth, rain, etc.)
This paper will discuss the monastery’s role in the medieval European life. The medieval monasteries played many roles in the community including providing medication, education, food (they offered food to the poor), preserved earlier works of the Greeks in form of writing and writing, offered hospitality to the pilgrims (Lawrence, 2014).
Monasticism or monarchism is literally the act of "dwelling alone". The Rule of St Benedict played an important role in Europe during the middle ages, monks were able to preserve many classical works from both the Romans and the Greeks while acting as copiers that produced books, they were the most pious of the church and acted as a model for the average person to strive for. It dignified manual labor, the rule acted as a written constitution and rule of law for most monasteries, policies could be seen as harsh by some but the overall message is built around a positive spirit of reconciliation. The Rule of St. Benedict most significant role for the development of European civilization was education.
Depending on what each person’s purpose was for having a garden, each garden would have different elements. A nurse or midwife would have medicinal herbs, a spinner or weaver would have dye plants, or a decorative garden would have brightly colored flowers. (Pleasant 2004)