Hepatitis B

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Epidemiology Paper - Hepatitis B Concepts in Community and Public Health NRS-427V-0102

EPIDEMIOLOGY PAPER - HEPATITIS B Epidemiology Paper - Hepatitis B


―Communicable disease‖ means an illness caused by an infectious agent or its toxins that occurs through the direct or indirect transmission of the infectious agent or its products from an infected individual or via an animal, vector or the inanimate environment to a susceptible animal or human host‖ ("CDC," 2010, p. 1). Hepatitis B is one of the communicable diseases which are a contagious liver disease that results from infection with the Hepatitis B virus (HBV). CAUSES ―Exposure may occur:  After a needle stick or sharps
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There are three possible routes of transmission of HBV from infected mothers to infants: transplacental transmission of HBV in utero; natal transmission during delivery; or postnatal transmission during care or through breast milk‖ (Hou, Liu, & Gu, 2005, p. 51). WHO sites says that as ―the HBV virus is large and does not cross the placenta. HBV can't contaminate the fetus unless there have been breaks in the maternal-fetal barrier, e.g. by means of amniocentesis. Still, pregnant ladies who are infected with HBV can transmit their sickness to their infants during childbirth. If not immunized during childbirth, many of these infants develop HBV diseases, and some children develop liver failure or liver cancer in later life‖ ("WHO," 2014, p. 1). ―The studies on transplacental transmission of HBV suggested two possible mechanisms (1) hemagenous route: a certain of factors, such as threaten abortion, can make the placental microvascular broken, thus the high-titer HBV maternal blood leak into fetus' circulation (2) cellular transfer: the placental tissue is infected by high-titer of HBV in maternal blood from

EPIDEMIOLOGY PAPER - HEPATITIS B mother's side to fetus' step by step, and finally, HBV reach fetus' circulation through the villous capillary endothelial cells. For

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