This research paper is going to review today’s silent killer, the Hepatitis C virus. This paper will talk about the description of the disease, the signs and symptoms, the etiology and risk factors, diagnostic studies, treatments and prognosis of this disease. I had lived with this disease for over ten years before diagnosed so it is important to understand the signs and symptoms so the disease can be identified and a treatment plan can be identified as the sooner it is treated the more likely it will eradicate the disease.
As alarming as this may sound, this does affect you in your daily lives. A majority of the people reading this piece may be healthy beings, but there are no guarantees that this may not affect us in the future. Then again, other than hepatitis C, there are numerous other illnesses such as rheumatoid arthritis that we may encounter later in our lives. These diseases also have an alarming price tag associated with its treatments or medications.
A few years ago, Hepatitis C was a scary term for many of us. But, today the medical problem is curable as there are various and advanced ways available. The improvement in the treatment is especially notable because experts have worked harder to obtain this success. Still, there are some significant changes are left and hopefully they will be completed soon. Presently, the HCV treatments get rid of the virus in merely slightly more than half of all sufferers. The medicines also have unnecessary side effects that make it complicated or not possible for some patients to get them. HCV medication online available, but it is not worthy to take them without the concern of the doctor.
About 4.1 million people in Americans have the positive antibody to hepatitis C virus (HCV), and about 75 percent have permeant infection. Additionally, most of the infections happened 20 to 40 years ago, before the finding of HCV. Hepatitis C increased from 7,000 to 13,000 deaths in 2005. Furthermore, HCV develops slowly which increases the risk of severe complications in the infected people. Identification, death, and treatment are predicted to affect 35,000 by 2030. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) used antiviral therapy with PEGylated in clinical trials (Kalichman, Washington, Kegler, Grebler, Kalichman, Cherry, & Eaton, 2015). The CDC recommends a HCV one time test for people born between 1945 and 1965. The objective of this study was to thoroughly evaluate the amount of substance abusers infected with hepatitis C in the United States. Additionally, to observe the treatment of HCV. Currently Medicaid and Medicare repayment standards for sofosbuvir were calculated in all states, including the District of Columbia. Medicaid and Medicare covered the drug based on the following conditions; liver disease stage, HIV, and drug use. Approximately 42 states reimbursed the following criteria up to 74 percent for the drug sofobuvir. About two-thirds of the United States restricted the treatment centered on prescriber type. About 88 percent included drug abuse in their sofosbuvir admissibility measures. Finally, 50 percent required a date of abstinence and 64 percent required
Many people don’t understand how dangerous Hepatitis C is because it is not commonly known about as much as Hepatitis A or B. This disease is however very serious. Although frequently asymptomatic in time the virus can lead to cirrhosis, liver cancer and liver failure. Symptoms of HCV are jaundice (yellowing of the eyes), stomach pain, nausea and fatigue. Treatment options for the disease, if caught early enough is a combination of medications or depending on the degree of damage, a liver transplant. ”For some people, hepatitis C is a short-term illness but for 70%-85% of people who become infected with
About 4.1 million people in Americans have the positive antibody for hepatitis C virus (HCV), and about 75% of them are persistently infected and most of the infections happened d 20 to 40 years ago, before the finding of HCV. Hepatitis C increased from 7,000 to 13,000 deaths in 2005. Furthermore, HCV develops slowly which increases the risk for severe complications in the infected people. Identification, death, and treatment is predicted to affect 35,000 by 2030. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) used antiviral therapy with PEGylated in clinical trials. The CDC recommends a HVC one time test for people born between 1945 and 1965.They observed testing by birth. The objective of this study was to thoroughly evaluate the amount of substance abuser infected with hepatitis C in the United States. Additional to observe the treatment of HVC. Currently Medicaid and Medicare repayment standards for sofosbuvir were calculated in all states including the District of Columbia. Medicaid and Medicare covered the drug based on the following classes liver disease stage, HIV, and drug use. Approximately 42 states reimbursed the following criteria up to 74% for the drug sofobuvir. About two thirds of the United States restricted the treatment centered on prescriber type. About 88% included drug abuse in their sofosbuvir admissibility measures. Finally 50% required a dated of abstinence and 64% required drug test. The latest drug to HVC is called Sovaldi and it costs $84,000 for the 12
In time the virus can lead to cirrhosis, liver cancer and liver failure. Symptoms of HCV are jaundice (yellowing of the eyes), stomach pain, nausea and fatigue. The main problem is that many people don’t have symptoms until they already have some sort of liver damage. Treatment options for HCV include a combination of medications or depending on the degree of damage, a liver transplant. Given that HCV it is a blood disease that is spread through contact with an infected person’s blood, there are many ways to contract this disease. Injection drug users, physical altercations, sexual contact and mother to infant infection are just some of the ways this disease is spread.
According to Baily, et al. (2009) lack of treatment to cure the disease will lead to a patient’s uncertainty on how the illness will present itself in the future. Thus, patients must face the unknown factors of their disease progression and manage life with their chronic illness. In Chronic Hepatitis C, tracking of outcomes and progressions are difficult, and disease trajectory varies from person to person (Baily, et al 2009). In addition, uncertainty stems from lack of knowledge of the disease, loss of control, and expectations of possible relapse of symptoms in the future.
Recall the dreaded trips to the doctor’s office when it was time to get shots. These shots are vaccines, which provide immunity to certain diseases. You received vaccines for Tetanus, Hepatitis B, Measles and Polio. A vaccine you did not get though, is one for Hepatitis C. Hepatitis C is a disease that affects the way the liver operates, and although there is a vaccine for both Hepatitis A and B, there is not one for C. Hepatitis C affects the digestive system, more specifically the liver. It can also damage the central nervous system and the circulatory system. Blood tests are the most common way to detect Hepatitis C and after one has been diagnosed with it, there are many ways to treat it. Hepatitis C is a treatable disease with varying
Hepatitis C is a prevalent health care problem. According to the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2016), approximately 2.7-3.9 million of the adult population in the United States is infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Some groups of people are at risk for Hepatitis C infection, including current injection drug users, people who received the blood transfusion before 1992, organ recipients from a donor who tested positive for hepatitis C virus, hemodialysis patients, and children born to a hepatitis C mother (CDC, 2016). Hepatitis C causes embarrassment and isolation from the society. Self-esteem and understanding of the
Based on the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR), the number of waitlisted older adults (> 65 years) for liver transplantation has significantly increased in the past decade from 9.9% (1,637) in 2001 to 16% (2,460) in 2011 (22). The demand for liver transplantation is expected to increase with high rates of Hepatitis C infection among individuals born between 1945- 1965 who are at risk for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (23). Given the increasing numbers
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver. There are currently five known viruses that cause can hepatitis (Microbiology, 10e). The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is transmitted through contact with the blood of an infected person; however, it is now more commonly spread among IV drug users that share needles. Healthcare workers are also at risk for contracting HCV, but with standard precautions, the risk is low. “Prior to 1992, some people acquired the HCV infection from transfusions of blood or blood products. Since 1992, all blood products have been screened for HCV, and cases of HCV due to blood transfusion now are extremely rare. HCV can be passed from mother to unborn child. Approximately 4 out of every 100 infants born to HCV-positive mothers
Hepatitis C has been referred to as a "Silent Epidemic," since it usually progresses slowly over many years. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C are not aware of any noticeable symptoms for as long as one to two decades after they are infected. In fact, by the time symptoms appear, the virus has probably already begun to damage the liver. If the liver is injured and stops functioning, death will always be the outcome (Lieber). Liver failure from chronic hepatitis C is one of the most common causes of liver transplants in the United States.
The Egyptian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS), a cross sectional survey was done on a big sample of Egyptian people in age group from 15 to59 years to measure hepatitis C prevalence and it was 14.7%. In comparison to HCV studies conducted in different countries and reported that Egypt has the largest epidemic of (HCV) all over the world (El-Zanaty and Way, 2009).