Hepatitis C Lab Paper

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Viral Entry The envelope proteins of HCV form a heterodimer which helps binding the hepatitis C virus to the receptors present on the hepatocytes membrane. The hepatocyte host proteins help binding of the envelope proteins. low density lipoprotein (LDL) glycosaminoglycan’s (GAGs), and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptors are also involved in enhancing the binding of the HCV virus to the membrane. The virus is entered into the cytoplasm by endosome coated with clathrin. The nucleocapsied released into the cytoplasm due to the acidification of the endosome (Moradpour et al., 2007).

Viral Replication The replication of hepatitis C virus is so fast as1012 virus particles can be created per day in each individual infected
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There is a very high rates of morbidity and mortality in Egypt due to hepatitis C chronic infection or its complications either cirrhosis or liver cancer. The rate of infection in Egypt is higher than neighboring countries and even more than other countries with the same conditions. Genotype4 is the most genotype found in Egypt mostly subtype 4a and this suggest that there is an epidemic spread of the virus in our country according to (WHO, 2009).
The Egyptian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS), a cross sectional survey was done on a big sample of Egyptian people in age group from 15 to59 years to measure hepatitis C prevalence and it was 14.7%. In comparison to HCV studies conducted in different countries and reported that Egypt has the largest epidemic of (HCV) all over the world (El-Zanaty and Way, 2009).
In other countries HCV infection is distributed among specific groups, but in Egypt infection with the virus reached to different groups even those not identified as high risk groups (Mohamoud et al, 2013).
Mode of Transmission In the developed countries the primary route of transmission of the virus is intravenous drug use, in opposite to the developing countries the main routes are unclean medical procedures and unsafe blood transfusions (Maheshwari et al., 2010). In 20% of cases the route of transmission is unknown may be by intravenous drug abuse.
A-Unsafe medical procedures:
Before blood transfusion and organ transplantation HCV
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