The other kind of test is called the Hepatitis C RNA Qualitative test. This test determines if the virus is currently present in your body. This is the test that is used most often to detect the virus. A positive test result indicates that you have Hepatitis C. A negative result will indicate that the virus is undetected. This could mean that even though your body may have been exposed to the virus it was able to fight the disease
There are 5 variants of viral hepatitis from hepatitis A through to hepatitis E and these are caused by different viruses (Neighbours and Jones, 2010). In the initial stages of contracting viral hepatitis there is a possibility of being asymptomatic or there can be some non-specific and specific symptoms. Non-specific symptoms in a client could be anorexia, malaise, feelings of nausea and sometimes vomiting, a new dislike of the taste of cigarettes, myalgia (muscle pains), abdominal pains and fever. These non-specific symptoms can lead to a misdiagnosis such as influenza because they are quite general. Hepatitis is suspected when specific symptoms develop such as right upper quadrant
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is from the virus family Flaviviridae with an RNA envelope serving as it's genetic material. The genetic material (RNA) is HCV's pathogenic structure. The genome is positive sense single stranded RNA, which is very similar to mRNA and can be translated quickly to the host cell (Bauman 2012). Hepatitis C is an enveloped virus, and the RNA also lacks a proofreading ability after replication, which results in mutations coding for many genotypes within the host. This genetic variability makes it difficult for the host immune system to clear all the HCV infections. As one infection clears, another strain is being produced (Bauman 2012). The HCV antibody detected by ELISA(Wilkinson
Many people don’t understand how dangerous Hepatitis C is because it is not commonly known about as much as Hepatitis A or B. This disease is however very serious. Although frequently asymptomatic in time the virus can lead to cirrhosis, liver cancer and liver failure. Symptoms of HCV are jaundice (yellowing of the eyes), stomach pain, nausea and fatigue. Treatment options for the disease, if caught early enough is a combination of medications or depending on the degree of damage, a liver transplant. ”For some people, hepatitis C is a short-term illness but for 70%-85% of people who become infected with
The strain of genotypes is not differentiated by the severity of the disease. However, there will make a distinction in the regimen and the duration of the treatment (CDC, 2016). Treatment for chronic HCV is based on guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the American Associations for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD). The criteria of who should receive the treatment include how much the virus in the body, the strain of hepatitis C, the degree of liver inflammation or damage, comorbidity, and response to previous treatment (Infectious Diseases Society of America [IDSA], 2016). The highest priority for treatment should give to a patient with advanced fibrosis and compensated cirrhosis (IDSA, 2016). Moreover, treatment priority should provide to the patient who has a high risk of transmitting the disease from and to others, such as individuals who are active injection drug users and hemodialysis patients (IDSA, 2016).
If someone is getting tested for Hepatitis C, they will first take an antibody test. This test will detect if antibodies are present in the blood, which will tell if the person has ever had Hepatitis C, not if they currently possess it (“Who Should”). If the antibody test comes back positive, a qualitative test will then be run. This test declares tells if someone is currently infected with Hepatitis C. A quantitative test can also be run, which shows the amount of Hepatitis C that is in the blood (“Who Should”). There are two main medications that are used to treat Hepatitis C. The first being Pegylated Interferon and another being Ribavirin. Both medications are used for the treatment of adult patients with chronic liver disease (FDA). These medications are used in place of the vaccine that has not been created for Hepatitis C. Therefore, Hepatitis C can be detected easily and is treatable.
Regina is a 62-year-old female diagnosed with chronic viral Hepatitis C (B18.2) and is genotype 1a. She is treatment naïve. Her most recent lab results indicate HCV RNA 4,005,368 IU/mL, ALT 63, and AST 83. Regina’s CT scan shows a cirrhotic appearance of the liver.
Hepatitis C is an inflammation of the liver caused by a virus. It was discovered about twenty-eight years ago. The liver is very essential to life because it has many important functions in our bodies. Hepatitis C is a blood-borne virus. Hepatitis C is not a virus that you can visibly see unless you run a blood test and discover it in the blood. Hepatitis C is contagious but it is treatable and is considered cured if the virus is no longer detectable in your blood. Considering that some of the Hepatitis C symptoms are similar to other viral symptoms, the doctor has to diagnose the patient to officially confirm the virus. Hepatitis C is easily spread and is most common in teenagers and adults. The most common ways to spread Hepatitis C is
Hepatitis C has been referred to as a "Silent Epidemic," since it usually progresses slowly over many years. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C are not aware of any noticeable symptoms for as long as one to two decades after they are infected. In fact, by the time symptoms appear, the virus has probably already begun to damage the liver. If the liver is injured and stops functioning, death will always be the outcome (Lieber). Liver failure from chronic hepatitis C is one of the most common causes of liver transplants in the United States.
Globally, an estimated 150 million people have been infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV is the major cause of cirrhosis and liver cancer and one of the most common indications for liver transplantation (Simmonds, 2004).There is serious concern about the growing problem of the HIV and HCV prevalence in Africa, where the major route of transmission of HIV is through the sexual route. Co-infection with HCV and HIV is common due to shared routes of transmission – via blood and blood products and sharing of needles for injecting drugs. About 40 million people are estimated to be infected with HIV worldwide of which approximately 4-5 million are co-infected with HCV (Alter, 2006). Co-infection with HIV and HCV are common due to shared routes of transmission, however, there are differences in the ways that these viruses are transmitted in the developed and developing countries (Ocama and Seremba, 2011).
Awareness of risk factors of hepatitis C helps the NPs to recognize at risk patients, who should be screened for viruses and referred to treatment based on the specific criteria (Olson & Jacobson, 2011). The NPs should become the specialist referral resource and a center point of information support. This role assists in reducing the number of the patients seeking treatment in the acute care setting.
In this study, we did the first validation for Hepa-Index (a relatively new biomarkers panel for assessment of hepatic fibrosis) against liver biopsy in chronic hepatitis C. Hepa-Index showed good sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, for predicting significant hepatic fibrosis, severe hepatic fibrosis, and cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C patients. Hepa-Index performance is almost equal to the performance of different patented and non-patented noninvasive panels for assessment of hepatic fibrosis (FibroTest, FibroMeters, HepaScore, and APRI) which is reported to have an AUROCs ranging from 0.72 to 0.78 for detection of significant fibrosis and 0.77 to 0.86 for detection of cirrhosis . Hepa-Index as a serum biomarker panel carry the advantages of patented and expensive serum fibrosis biomarkers in addition to being free of charge and accurate in classifying significant hepatic fibrosis, advanced hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. One more advantage of Hepa-Index over currently available tests like APRI, FIB-4, Forns index, FibroTest and FibroMeter is absence of transaminases (ALT and AST) in its formula which may lead to false positive results in acute
HCV-RNA levels were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction using a commercial kit (Bioer, Technology Co., Ltd) according to the manufacturer's instructions.