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Hepatocellular Carcinogenesis Lab Report

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A Review on Hepatocellular Carcinoma and its Immunotherapy
Introduction:
The liver is a large organ of our body which is located beneath the right lung. It helps in the digestion of food and store the extra energy for future use. It also helps fights the infection and cleans your blood. Liver also has an amazing regenerative capacity after injury. All these activities ultimately provide a healthy life to us. Any alterations in the liver function will put our life in danger.1 Inflammation is the first sign of liver damage. During inflammation, the liver get enlarged and stiff. This is a sign that liver is trying the heal the damage. However, unlike inflammation of other organs of the body, it is hard to feel any change or pain when the liver
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It has been found that HCC originates from the hepatic stem cells which comprise the most cellular part of the liver. However, there needs to do some investigation regarding this fact.6 The development of carcinogenesis is typically a stepwise process. The sequential genetic mutations in hepatic cells lead to the activation of oncogenes. As a result of this, the tumor suppressing genes get deactivated resulting in the development o HCC.7 There are a variety of pathways for carcinogenesis which are altered due to external and environmental factors, leading to genetic changes. The major genetic changes are observed in p53, PIKCA and β-catenin genes. Moreover, dysplastic nodules and regenerartive nodules are observed in cirrhotic liver. However, there is no clear connection found between these nodules and the HCC…show more content…
It is diagnosed at the later stage of the disease and the average survival rate after diagnosis is 6 to 20 months.9 Currently, HCC can be treated by surgical removal. However, this treatment in not applicable to majority patients because of the cancer extent or underlying liver dysfunction. Other treatment options include liver transplantation, radiofrequency ablation and microwave ablation, precutaneous ethanol or acetic acid ablation. The side effects of this treatment include pain, fever, intraperitoneal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, blood clot, infection, mental confusion, diabetes, high blood pressure
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