In the article “The Seasons Aren’t What They Used to Be,” David George Haskell berates that fact that climate change is evident in most forms of life around us, however, humans have refused to acknowledge the obvious signs and take necessary action. Haskell is a professor of biology on the faculty of Sewanee University in Sewanee, Tennessee. He holds a Bachelor of Arts from the University of Oxford, and a Ph.D. from Cornell University and writes about biodiversity, evolution, and conservation. Haskell education background and experience give him the credibility to speak on the effect of climate change. Haskell’s purpose is to point out the signs of the changes in season triggered by climate change and its effect on plant, animal and human
Wingstem (Verbesina alternifolia) are an unbranched perennial plant that are primarily located in middle and eastern areas of North America. Wingstem grow in habitats that receive large amounts of sun and areas that are shaded. Wingstem thrive in areas with moist conditions, and receive periodic rainfall. Based on our knowledge of the chemical processes in plants, the Wingstem located in the sunlit areas will have greater reproduction, resulting in increased flowering rather than those in shaded locations. To test our hypothesis, we collected Wingstem in various habitats (sun and shaded). We then calculated the number of flowers, followed by weighing the total vegetation. The results demonstrate a significant difference between the number
The first argument examined on the man-made global warning side is that increasing greenhouse gases caused by human activities is causing directly observed climate changes. The first resulting climate change discussed is warming global surface temperature. There has been an increase in global surface temperature of 0.74 degrees C since the late 19th century. In the last 50 years alone the temperature has increased by 0.13 degrees C per decade. North America and Eurasia have seen the largest increase in warmth. However, some areas of the earth have actually cooled some this past century (Easterling & Karl, 2011, para6). After the mid 20th century 70% of the global land mass saw reduced diurnal temperatures. From 1979 to 2005 the maximum and minimum temperatures have shown no change; both indicate warming (Easterling & Karl, 2011, para10). Furthermore, borehole temperatures, snow cover, and glacier recession data all seem to agree with recent warming (Easterling & Karl, 2011, para11).
Temperature influences the distribution of plants and this is another abiotic factor. In the Lions club tower I could feel the difference in temperature. Bottom at being cold and moist whereas the top is warm and dry. This is shown clearly on the average table. Temperatures such as snow or frost determines the distribution of plants as most plants cannot prevent freezing because of their tissues and this abiotic factor affects the plantae group. Other effects that could cause an establishment to particular plants due to temperature is the gemination of biennial plants, and this is during spring or summer known as vernalization. This is the cooling of seed in order to quickly adapt to the environment and the abiotic factors. As of the forest
Fluctuating light intensity. During winter, a layer of snow covers the ground, causing less light to reaches the plants. During summer, there is a large amount of sunlight reaching the plants.
Dendrochronology is a method using the annual nature of tree growth to determine changes in climate settings. Each year trees develops a new layer of wood under its bark. The thickness of each layer is dependent on various factors, especially climate. The conditions encouraging growth will result in a wider tree ring, whereas the unfavourable conditions would result in narrow rings. By measuring the width of each tree ring and plotting them as graphs, scientists are able to determine the climate changes throughout the years.
Climate change has affected us in many ways, but it was even more influential on organisms and their community. The Earth is gradually heating and we are left to deal with the consequences. Homes are being destroyed, organisms are dying, and resources are running low. Since 1880, Our Earth’s temperature had increased by about 0.8 degrees Celsius. Climate change is affecting the Earth and scientists say that one more degree will greatly affect people from all over the world. There are many consequences of climate change and each one has a great impact on all of us, but organisms’ homes are being destroyed and thousands of species are dying out. These organisms are imperative to our world and how it functions.
dy of plant fossils and the understanding the evolution of plant life and ecology of earlier eras is known as paleobotany. Paleobotanists concern with fossil records of plants and their geologic history greatly describes the main concept of paleobotany. Only a small percentage of the plants that ever lived left evidence of existence. The major plant fossils that have been discovered are mineralized wood, flowers in amber, leaf imprints in coal, or other plant life many years ago. Paleobotanists document fossil records and use this evidence to find the past evolution of plants.
The greatest social antagonism we as a living, loving, thinking species are currently facing--global climate change--is continuing to cause drastic alterations to our planet’s ecology. California’s already four-year-long drought is worsening by 27% as a result of higher temperatures, which are causing more moisture to evaporate from plants and soil, reports a recent study in the journal named Geophysical Research Letters.
Of the multitude of labs and experiments performed in this class, each and every one of them exemplifies at least one aspect of the Nature of Science. One particular facet of the Nature of Science is that “Science is data driven (empirical), but also inferential.” This statement simply means that science consists of data that is obtained through mere observation and experimentation, but science also consists of inferences made from existing data. One example of an experiment conducted in this class in which the science was data driven was the Measure Twice, Cut Once lab. In this lab, plant diversity in a lawn ecosystem was measured using diversity indices such as species richness, percent cover, and species frequency just to name a few. In order to calculate and analyze the various diversity indices, empirical data was collected by dividing the lawn ecosystem into sixteen quadrats and physically observing the plants present in each quadrat.
The article, “800-Year-Old Seeds Have Grown Into a History-Altering Plant”, on MyModernMet, details the discovery of an ancient clay vessel containing 800-year-old extinct squash seeds on a Wisconsin First Nation reserve. Following the discovery, students from the Canadian Mennonite University planted the seeds, and miraculously, they were able to harvest the extinct squash called gete-okosomin. The discovery of the ancient vessel and its seeds provided an excellent opportunity to learn about human history beyond the limits of written records. Undoubtedly, the discovery of the extinct seeds on a First Nation reserve provides deeper insight into the heritage, culture, and environmental interactions of the indigenous people centuries ago. Although it appears that the discovery of the seeds has done a great service by recovering a part of history, this is not true. In the discovery of the clay
It has been observed through various researches that in the last century, average temperatures across the globe increased by over 1.3°F with an increase of more than two times in the Arctic. (Bates, Kundzewicz, Wu, & Palutikof, June 2008). The results of climate change can also be seen in changing precipitation patterns, increases in ocean temperatures, changes in the sea level, and acidity and melting of glaciers and sea ice (USEPA, 2014).